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HOW MUSICAL LINES INTERACT Musical Texture, Form, and Style.

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Presentation on theme: "HOW MUSICAL LINES INTERACT Musical Texture, Form, and Style."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW MUSICAL LINES INTERACT Musical Texture, Form, and Style

2 What is Musical Texture? Musical Texture refers to a number of different characteristics of music  Texture is the number of parts playing  It refers to whether each line is a melody or harmony part  Texture refers to how each part relates to each other Can be described as thick, thin, dense, heavy, light Variations in texture can create contrast and drama We will look at three basic textures  Monophonic  Polyphonic  Homophonic

3 Monophonic Texture- “One Sound” Monophonic means that there is one melodic line with no harmony or accompaniment If multiple voices or instruments are playing in unison, it is still Monophonic Examples of monophonic music  Singing solo a capella (Whitney Houston, “I Will Always Love You”solo  Gregorian chant Gregorian chant  Unaccompanied instrumental sonatas (Baroque)sonatas

4 Polyphonic Music- “Many Sounds” Polyphonic means that there are two or more melodic lines of equal importance Technique of writing several melodic lines that interact is called counterpoint Often uses imitation, which is when one voice or instrument presents a melodic idea, then another voice repeats it  Not always exact imitation Examples of polyphonic music  Rounds, fugues, (Little Fugue in G minor ) and canons (Pachelbel’s Cannon in D)fuguescanons  Partner songs

5 Homophonic Music- “Same Sounds” Homophonic means there is one main melody with a less important accompaniment  Accompaniment could be as simple as chords, or it could be more complex If a line in the accompaniment starts to stand out and become more important, then the texture changes to polyphonic Examples of homophonic music  Melody and accompaniment (Alan Jackson – “The Old Rugged Cross”) Melody and accompaniment  Traditional hymn arrangements (Traditional – “The Old Rugged Cross”)hymn Homophonic writing using chords

6 FarandoleFarandole by Georges Bizet Has two themes: a march theme and a dance theme Starts with the march theme in a homophonic texture, then then violins and violas play a polyphonic section (fugue like) The high woodwinds then play the dance theme in a homophonic texture After the full orchestra plays the dance theme, the strings play a monophonic version of the march theme Listen for other changes in texture

7 “Hallelujah” by Georg Frideric Handel Switches rapidly between all three textures  Word “Hallelujah” is usually homophonic, with some imitative polyphony“Hallelujah”  “For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth” is usually monophonic  “And he shall reign” is always polyphonic Changes in texture create contrast for each section of the piece

8 MUSICAL FORM Three techniques that create Form  Repetition  Allows the listener to become familiar with a theme or melody  Often used with another technique  Contrast  Can be a change in an element of music, i.e. melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, tempo, timbre; mood can be changed as well  Variation  Alteration of a musical idea so it’s different but still recognizable  Entire pieces can be composed using this technique  Example – Variation on America by Charles IvesVariation on America  Listen and Illustrate the “Theme and Variation” sections in the “Variations on America” (next page)

9 Illustrate (“Variations on America”) Listen and Illustrate the “Theme and Variation” sections in the “Variations on America”

10 Two Major types of Form Ternary Form  Three sections: A B A  Can be looked at as a statement of a theme, a contrasting section, and a return to the original  Each section can also be subdivided, as well Example: Dance of the Reed Pipes from The Nutcracker Suite- By Peter TchaikovskyDance of the Reed Pipes  A section introduces the melody  B section uses the trumpets and strings to vary the melody  Return to the A section with the flutes  Listen and Illustrate the three sections in the “Dance of the Reed Pipes” (on next page)

11 Illustrate “Dance of the Reeds” (from the Nutcracker) Show the form through your illustration incorporating repetition and contrast

12 Two Major types of Form Binary Form  Two sections: A B  Can be looked at as a statement of a theme and then a counterstatement with a different theme.  Any section can be repeated Example: “Gavotte from French Suite NO. 5 in G Major” By Johanne Sebastian BachGavotte  See next page for Listening Outline

13 Listening Outline (to be read while music is heard) Listen and Illustrate the two sections in “Gavotte” by Bach

14 Musical Style Style- a characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, timbre, texture, and form. Particular combinations create a distinctive sound Composers from the same area, time, or country often use similar styles Musical styles change over time, but it is often gradual

15 Eras of Western Art Music Middle Ages (450-1450) Renaissance (1450-1600) Baroque (1600-1750) Classical (1750-1820) Romantic (1820-1900) Twentieth Century to 1945 1945 to the Present

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