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Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves

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Presentation on theme: "Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diencephalon, Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves
Day 5 Pages:

2 Diencephalon Located between the cerebral hemispheres and above midbrain Composed largely of gray matter Surrounds 3rd ventricle Includes: Thalamus Hypothalamus Optic tracts Optic chiasma Infundibulum Posterior pituitary gland Mammillary bodies Pineal gland

3 Parts to Diencephalon Optic tracts/optic chiasma Infundibulum
Formed by optic nerve fibers crossing over each other Infundibulum Behind optic chiasma, attachment for pituitary gland Posterior pituitary gland Hangs from floor of hypothalamus Mammillary Bodies Two rounded structures behind infundibulum Pineal gland Cone shaped structure attached to upper portion of diencephalon

4 Thalamus Bulge into 3rd ventricle
Central relay station for all sensory impulses except smell (ascending fibers) Channels impulses to appropriate regions of cortex for interpretation Can communicate with cerebral cortex by means of descending fibers

5 Hypothalamus Located below thalamus and forms floor of 3rd ventricle
Maintains homeostasis and links endocrine to nervous system Regulates: Heart rate and arterial BP Body Temp. H2O and electrolyte balance Control of hunger and body weight Control movements and glandular secretions of stomach and intestines Production of neurosecretory substances and stimulation of pituitary gland to secrete hormones Sleep and wakefulness

6 Other functions of Diencephalon
Limbic System Comprised of parts of: cerebral cortex, frontal and temporal lobes, hypothalamus, thalamus basal ganglia and other deep masses called nuclei Controls emotional experiences and expressions Can modify the way a person acts Fear, anger, pleasure, and sorrow Guides persons behavior towards a likely increase in survival.

7 Brain Stem Bundle of nervous tissue that connects cerebrum to spinal cord. Consists of three parts Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata

8 Midbrain Located at the top between diencephalon and pons
Contain corticospinal tracts which are the main motor pathways between cerebrum and lower parts of nervous system Contains several masses of gray matter that serve as reflex centers.

9 Pons Rounded bulge on underside of brain stem
Dorsal side relays impulses to and from M.O and cerebrum. Ventral side transmits impulses to cerebrum and cerebellum. Also relays sensory impulses from PNS to higher brain centers

10 Medulla Oblongata End of brain stem
All ascending and descending nerve fibers pass through MO Controls vital visceral activites Cardiac center Alters heart rate Vasomotor Center Constricting and dilating of blood vessels Respiratory Center Regulate rate, rhythm, and depth of breathing Also responsible for coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting.

11 Reticular Formation Found throughout the brain stem
Network of nerve fibers Responsible for taking sensory impulses and activating cerebral cortex into a state of wakefulness Decreased activity in reticular formation is known as sleep. Comatose state: Point at which the reticular formation is injured and cannot be aroused even with strong stimulation.

12 Cerebellum Large mass of tissue located below occipital bone.
Divided into two hemispheres Surrounded by cerebral cortex Communicates with CNS by three pairs of nerve tracts Cerebellar peduncles

13 Cellebellar Peduncles
Inferior Brings sensory information concerning position of limbs, joints, and other body parts Middle Transmits signals from the cerebral cortex to the cerebrellum concerning desired positions of these parts. After interpretation/analysis, sends pulses on to 3rd pair Superior Incorporated into motor impulses that get sent down brainstem to move body in desired way.

14 Cerebellum Reflex center for integrating sensory information concerning position of body parts and coordination of skeletal muscle movements Maintains posture Damage/Injury Tremors Inaccurate movements of voluntary muscles Loss of muscle tone Reeling walk Loss of equilibrium

15 Review What are the major functions of the thalamus? The hypothalamus?
How may the limbic system influence behavior? List the structures of the brain stem. What vital reflex centers are located in the brain stem? What is the function of the reticular formation? Where is the cerebellum located? What are the major functions of the cerebellum?

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