Tenets of CLT Focus on using language rather than on knowing about language Language is presented in a context Input is modified Focus on meaning of language rather than on form Mistakes are welcomed and not always corrected Authentic materials are introduced Interactive Pair and group work Four skills and four systems.
A brief history of ELT pedagogies Grammar translation method focus on grammar and vocabulary focus on written texts chosen because they present particular grammatical patterns focus on accuracy teachers use learners’ L1 to deliver the lesson Learners do exercises rather than tasks and activities Learners will often be preparing for a test rather than to use the language to communicate. (Still prevalent in many classrooms throughout the world.)
Audio-lingual method Derived from Skinner’s theories of language learning Behaviourist Developed by US army (Korean war) Instruction in L2 Drilling, accuracy, correct pronunciation, question/response, oral before written, ‘over- learning’.
Content-based teaching Subjects are taught through the target language (e.g. history) Focus on meaning and communication rather than on accuracy Many hours of exposure Content provides meaningful and comprehensible input. (Much ‘bilingual’ teaching follows this approach.)
‘Fringe methods’ The Silent Way Suggestopedia (Small classes) Community Language Learning (Must know L1 and L2) Total Physical Response (Young Learners)
Current pedagogies Task-based learning Lexical approach EAP/ESP Immersion
‘Post Method’ era What does this mean? What does it imply in terms of choosing teaching approaches? What does Brown suggest is more useful than ‘methods’?