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Nervous System The Excitable Cell Can be stimulated to create a tiny electric current – Muscle and nerves Why electricity? – Fast, energy efficient,

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Presentation on theme: "Nervous System The Excitable Cell Can be stimulated to create a tiny electric current – Muscle and nerves Why electricity? – Fast, energy efficient,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Nervous System

3 The Excitable Cell Can be stimulated to create a tiny electric current – Muscle and nerves Why electricity? – Fast, energy efficient, dependable over long distances Cell membrane is polarized (has different ions/charges on both sides…pumps!)

4 Nervous system cells dendrites cell body Axon synaptic terminal  Neuron  a nerve cell  Structure fits function  many entry points for signal  one path out  transmits signal signal direction signal direction dendrite  cell body  axon synapse myelin sheath Cell Body- Organelles and nucleus Axon- Conducts impulses away from cell body Dendrites- Receive information Synapse- Junction between synaptic terminal and postsynaptic cell Synaptic Terminal- Neurotransmitters made here. Axon Hillock- Enlarged region where axon attaches to cell body Myelin Sheath- Speeds up conduction, protects axon, made of Schwann cells, covered in lipids Axon hillock

5 Transmission of a signal Think dominoes! –start the signal knock down line of dominoes by tipping 1 st one  trigger the signal –propagate the signal do dominoes move down the line?  no, just a wave through them! –re-set the system before you can do it again, have to set up dominoes again  reset the axon

6 Transmission of a nerve signal Neuron has similar system –protein channels are set up –once first one is opened, the rest open in succession all or nothing response Trigger zone that determines if action potential will initiate  Axon Hillock! –a “wave” action travels along neuron –have to re-set channels so neuron can react again

7 Cells: surrounded by charged ions Cells live in a sea of charged ions –anions (negative) more concentrated within the cell Cl -, charged amino acids (aa - ) –cations (positive) more concentrated in the extracellular fluid Na + K+K+ Cl - K+K+ K+K+ aa - K+K+ Cl - aa - K+K+ K+K+ + – Membrane Potential- separation of opposite charges across plasma membrane (difference in # of anions and cations). More separated = more potential

8 Electrochemical Gradient The charge dictates where ions should go. – If one side is - then the electrochemical gradient will “pull” + ions to the negative side (+ ions are attracted to – environment) – Depolarize

9 Cells have voltage! Opposite charges on opposite sides of cell membrane –membrane is polarized negative inside; positive outside charge gradient stored energy (like a battery) +++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++ –––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––

10 Measuring cell voltage unstimulated neuron = resting potential of -70mV

11 Resting Potential Sodium Potassium Pump Unequal pumping results in a more + charge on outside Voltage = measures the difference in concentration of charges.

12 How does the nerve re-set itself? Sodium-Potassium pump –active transport protein in membrane requires ATP –3 Na + pumped out –2 K + pumped in –re-sets charge across membrane ATP

13 Diffusion Channels: Na/K Pump:Voltage-Gated Channel: Chemically-Gated Channel:

14 Neuron is ready to fire again Na + K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ aa - K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ +++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++ ––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––– resting potential

15 Action Potential Simulated neuron Na and K gates open Full depolarization All or nothing Does not diminish Travels longer distances Strong strength Graded Potential Simulated neuron Na, Cl, Ca gates open Membrane becomes partially depolarized Weaker strength Short distances Caused by molecules binding, temperature, permeability of membrane, mechanical simulation

16 How does a nerve impulse travel? Stimulus: nerve is stimulated –reaches threshold potential open Na + channels in cell membrane Na + ions diffuse into cell –charges reverse at that point on neuron positive inside; negative outside cell becomes depolarized (make more +) –++++++++++++++ –++++++++++++++ +–––––––––––––– +–––––––––––––– Na +

17 Gate +– + + channel closed channel open How does a nerve impulse travel? Wave: nerve impulse travels down neuron –change in charge opens next Na + gates down the line “voltage-gated” channels –Na + ions continue to diffuse into cell –“wave” moves down neuron = action potential ––++++++–++++++ ––++++++–++++++ ++––––––+–––––– ++––––––+–––––– Na + wave 

18 How does a nerve impulse travel? Re-set: 2nd wave travels down neuron –K + channels open K + channels open up more slowly than Na + channels –K + ions diffuse out of cell –charges reverse back at that point negative inside; positive outside Hyperpolorization- make more positive +––+++++––+++++ +––+++++––+++++ –++–––––++––––– –++–––––++––––– Na + K+K+ wave 

19 How does a nerve impulse travel? Combined waves travel down neuron –wave of opening ion channels moves down neuron –signal moves in one direction      flow of K + out of cell stops activation of Na + channels in wrong direction ++––+++++––++++ ++––+++++––++++ ––++–––––++–––– ––++–––––++–––– Na + wave  K+K+

20 How does a nerve impulse travel? Action potential propagates –wave = nerve impulse, or action potential –brain  finger tips in milliseconds! ++++––+++++––++ ++++––+++++––++ ––––++–––––++–– ––––++–––––++–– Na + K+K+ wave 

21 Voltage-gated channels Ion channels open & close in response to changes in charge across membrane –Na + channels open quickly in response to depolarization & close slowly –K + channels open slowly in response to depolarization & close slowly +++++–++++++––+ +++++–++++++––+ –––––+––––––++– –––––+––––––++– Na + K+K+ wave 

22 How does the nerve re-set itself? After firing a neuron has to re-set itself –Na + needs to move back out –K + needs to move back in –both are moving against concentration gradients need a pump!! +++++––++++++–– +++++––++++++–– –––––++––––––++ –––––++––––––++ Na + K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ wave  K+K+ Na +

23 1.Resting potential 2.Stimulus reaches threshold potential 3.Depolarization Na + channels open; K + channels closed 4.Na + channels close; K + channels open 5.Repolarization reset charge gradient 6.Undershoot K + channels close slowly Action potential graph –70 mV –60 mV –80 mV –50 mV –40 mV –30 mV –20 mV –10 mV 0 mV 10 mV Depolarization Na + flows in 20 mV 30 mV 40 mV Repolarization K + flows out Threshold Hyperpolarization (undershoot) Resting potential Resting 1 2 3 4 5 6 Membrane potential



26 Myelin sheath signal direction  Axon coated with Schwann cells  insulates axon  speeds signal  Signal hops from node to node  Saltatory conduction myelin sheath

27 Schwann Cells Found in peripheral NS (muscles and sensory) – Support cell – Guide growth/regrowth of PNS – Clean up debris

28 Node of Ranvier  Gap that separates 2 Schwann Cells  Na+ channels are localized only in exposed spaces of Ranvier’s Nodes  Action potential only produced in nodes  Current spreads under myelin to open channels in next node

29 myelin axon Na + + + +++ – – action potential Saltatory conduction Electrical signal jumps from one segment of fiber to the next

30 Synapse Impulse has to jump the synapse! –junction between neurons –has to jump quickly from one cell to next What happens at the end of the axon? Synaptic Cleft

31 The Role of Calcium Trigger the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic neuron. Action potential arrives at terminal Depolarizes membrane to open Ca channels Calcium enters cell Activates neurotransmitter vesicles to fuse with membrane Release neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft Bind to receptors on postsynaptic cells


33 axon terminal synaptic vesicles muscle cell (fiber) neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) receptor protein Ca ++ synapse action potential Chemical synapse  Events at synapse  action potential depolarizes membrane  opens Ca ++ channels  neurotransmitter vesicles fuse with membrane  release neurotransmitter to synapse  diffusion  neurotransmitter binds with protein receptor  ion-gated channels open  neurotransmitter degraded or reabsorbed


35 Nerve impulse in next neuron Post-synaptic neuron –triggers nerve impulse in next nerve cell chemical signal opens ion-gated channels Na + diffuses into cell K + diffuses out of cell –switch back to voltage-gated channel –++++++++++++++ –++++++++++++++ +–––––––––––––– +–––––––––––––– Na + K+K+ K+K+ ion channel binding site ACh

36 Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine –transmit signal to skeletal muscle Epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine –fight-or-flight response Dopamine –widespread in brain –affects sleep, mood, attention & learning –lack of dopamine in brain associated with Parkinson’s disease –excessive dopamine linked to schizophrenia Serotonin –widespread in brain –affects sleep, mood, attention & learning

37 Neurotransmitters Weak point of nervous system –any substance that affects neurotransmitters or mimics them affects nerve function gases: nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide mood altering drugs: –stimulants »amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine –depressants »quaaludes, barbiturates hallucinogenic drugs: LSD, peyote SSRIs: Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil poisons

38 snake toxin blocking acetylcholinesterase active site Acetylcholinesterase acetylcholinesterase active site in red neurotoxin in green Enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine neurotransmitter –acetylcholinesterase inhibitors = neurotoxins snake venom, sarin, insecticides

39 Neural Circuits Neurons are interconnected to form a circuit, circuits form a neural system DIVERGENCE: Output from one neuron onto many. Each postsynaptic neuron receives input from the same presynaptic neuron, but may react differently. CONVERGENCE: Output from many neurons onto one. Inputs may be excitatory or inhibitory.

40 Neural Circuits Afferent Neurons – Neurons that carry information toward the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) Efferent Neurons – Neurons that carry information away from central nervous system

41 Different Neurons Sensory (Afferent) – Receptor, receive messages from external environment, send to brain for processing (hot, cold, taste, sight, pain) Interneuron – Only found in central NS, form connection between other neurons (link between sensory and motor) Motor (Efferent) – Send messages from brain to body parts

42 Spinal Reflex The afferent limb of the reflex is sensory neurons. These afferents target neurons in the spinal cord. The efferent limb compromises motor neurons. There are also interneurons that connect the sensory neurons and motor neurons.

43 Unipolar- Afferent (function as sensory neurons) Have special structures for taking light/sound/temp/etc. into electrical activity No dendrites Multipolar- Can be interneurons or motor neurons Single, long axon with many dendrites (integration of lots of information from other neurons) Bipolar- Can be interneurons or motor neurons Found in retina, nasal cavity, and inner ear Pyrimidal- Can be interneurons or motor neurons

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