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IPCC methodologies and reporting principles Kristin Rypdal, CICERO & IPCC author
2 Outline IPCC process and role Reporting principles Methods to estimate emissions from aviation and shipping
3 IPCC work on inventory guidelines Guidance on how to compile an inventory –Methods –Emission factors –Decision trees for selecting a method –Allocation principles –Reporting tables On invitation from UNFCCC Adopted by UNFCCC –Formal reporting guidelines and tables
4 IPCC UNFCCC 1996 Guidelines Good practice Guidance (2004) 2006 Guidelines Annex I Kyoto Protocol ? Non-Annex I
5 IPCC Guidelines Authors nominated by the countries Three rounds of expert and government review and revision Accepted by IPCC plenary in 2006 Adoption of overview chapter Available for use at –http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/
6 IPCC 2006 Guidelines The series consists of five volumes: Volume 1 General Guidance and Reporting Volume 2 Energy Volume 3 Industrial Processes and Product Use Volume 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Volume 5 Waste
7 Aviation and maritime transport Shipping –Ocean shipping –Inland shipping –Fishing –Military –Small craft Aviation –Charter and scheduled aviation –Military –General aviation
8 IPCC reporting principles National inventories should include greenhouse gas emissions and removals taking place within national territory and offshore areas over which the country has jurisdiction A list of special considerations
9 Reporting of aviation and shipping Emissions from fuel for use in ships or aircraft engaged in international transport should not be included in national total, these emissions should be reported separately Emissions from bunkers is reported as a so- called memo item by the country selling the fuel Domestic/international split based on departure and arrival, not nationality of the airline
10 Domestic vs. international International Domestic International Oslo Frankfurt Munich
11 Domestic vs. international (2) Simplification in the 2006 Guidelines of technical stops –E.g. a ship going from Tromsø in Norway to Rotterdam, but stops outside Bergen (Norway) to fuel Tromsø- Bergen segment would be national under 2006 Guidelines International under Good practice guidance An open question if fuel statistics matches the IPCC definition –In most countries makes not much difference in practice Seeking general consistency between aviation and shipping
12 Reporting of fishing Reported separately from shipping –Separate category in 2006 Guidelines Fishing includes emissions from fuel used in inland, coastal and deep sea fishing. Emissions resulting from fuel used in coastal and deep sea fishing should be allocated to the country delivering the fuel –No bunkers –Quality of statistics?
13 Reporting of military Is reported as non-specified Emissions from multilateral operations are reported as a memo item excluded from national total Countries may report military bunkers as for shipping/aviation provided that they can apply the definition consistently –2006 Guidelines
14 Methods (general) Tier 1 –Simplest method –Activity data available to all countries Tier 2 –Technology-specific emission factor Tier 3 –More detailed or country-specific methods
15 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Feasibility Accuracy
16 What method is appropiate to use? Using the key category concept Step 1 Identify those sources that matter –Level (largest sources) –Trend (changing sources) Step 2 Use a decision trees to select a method based on country-specific circumstances –Data availability –Importance For non-key sources a Tier 1 method is appropriate For key sources - use a higher tier method
17 Methods: aviation Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor –Landing-takeoff (LTO) and cruise estimated jointly Tier 2: –LTO: No LTOs * emission factor –Cruise: Fuel (Total- LTO) * emission factor –By aircraft type Requires fuel data with a domestic- international split!
18 Methods: aviation (2) Tier 3: Aircraft movement data –Origin and destination Reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook –Full flight trajectory Computer models Guidance to activity data collection Emission factors –Emission factor database – EMEP/Corinair
19 Methods: shipping Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor –National level Tier 2: Fuel split by type and vehicle Tier 1 and Tier 2 requires fuel data with domestic – international split! Tier 3: Not specified Makes reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook
20 Methods: Fishing As the shipping method –Tier 1 adequate –Tier 3 will differ and is not specified Activity data Fuel consumption data
21 Methods: Military aviation and shipping Same method as civil aviation at Tier 1 level Tier 3 will differ –Fuel flow (kg/hour)
22 What method is appropriate to use? IPCC focuses on the Kyoto-gases –CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O –NO x and SO 2 are included, but not described in detail Reference to EMEP/Corinair emission inventory guidebook Choice of method does not matter much –CH 4 and N 2 O of minor importance Not much information –CO 2 fuel dependent only Only Tier 3 can provide independent activity data from fuel statistics
23 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook Developed under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Hosted by EEA Methods and emission factors for air pollutant inventories (NO x etc.) Currently undergoing a major update and restructuring funded by the EC –Consistency with IPCC Guidelines –Complementary to the IPCC Guidelines –Review and finalization spring 2008 Not main focus on Tier 3 methods
24 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (2) Shipping –Sailing routes –Vessel categories –Tabulated fuel and emission factors Aviation –LTO data and average cruise distances per aircraft type Generic aircrafts –Tabulated fuel consumption and emission factors Tables generated from more sophisticated models
25 EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (3) For both aviation and shipping method and fuel/emission factors need refinement Can generate inventories independent of fuel data –Estimates for reporting –Verification Can be compiled by countries without using sophisticated data and models
26 Personal views of needs for improvements Easy Tier 3 methods that can be applied to estimate fuel consumption –Need to match available statistics –Fuel consumption factors –Can build on sophisticated models NO x emission factors –Aviation LTO Cruise –Shipping Fishing –Activity data and emission factors Military
27 Conclusions Methods and definitions have developed from 1996 Guidelines to 2006 Guidelines Practical consequences are small Simpler methods all rely on fuel statistics Tier 3 methods to estimate fuel consumption need development Definitions and methods are in general more challenging to apply to shipping compared to aviation
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