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Section 1: The War Begins

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1 Section 1: The War Begins
Chapter 26 World War II Section 1: The War Begins

2 Results of WWII Why study it?
Largest armed conflict in the history of the world 62-78 million worldwide deaths (military & civilian) Mass genocide committed towards individual groups (The Holocaust, Great Purges, etc.) Atomic Age begins (and other new technologies) De-Colonization & Nationalism The beginnings of the Cold War (American & Soviet dominance of the world)

3 WW II Casualties: Asia Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations

4 WW II Casualties: Europe
Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations

5 Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Crematoria at Majdanek
Entrance to Auschwitz Crematoria at Majdanek

6 Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald

7 Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen

8 The Beginning of the Atomic Age

9 Early Computer Technology Came Out of WW II
Colossus, 1941 Mark I, 1944 Admiral Grace Hooper, COBOL language

10 The De-Colonization of European Empires

11 The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War

12 The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20c

13 TOTALITARIANISM (a govt. that has total control over its people)
Communism government owns the businesses and land Soviet Union Shared Characteristics extreme nationalism one strong leader one political party strong military secret police censorship propaganda indoctrination (teaching young people accepted ideas of the govt.) Fascism individual people own the businesses and land Germany, Italy

14 Absolute Dictators – Methods of Control
Dictators often used propaganda tools to maintain power (books, radio, the press, films) People were forbidden from criticizing their government

15 Nazi Propaganda


17 The Rise of Dictators Dictators (absolute rulers) seized power in Italy, Germany, Japan, Soviet Union after World War I Germany was treated severely after WWI (stripped of territory, forced to disarm, pay reparations) Worldwide Depression also hit – many people looked to new leaders to solve problems The MAJOR Dictators: Benito Mussolini in Italy; Adolf Hitler in Germany; Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union

18 Benito Mussolini (Italy)
Preached a government called Fascism – movement emphasizing loyalty to the state and its leader Deeply anti-Communist; strong support for Italian corporations Deep desire to make Italy a great world power Active Secret Police would jail political opponents Linked to racism and cultural superiority Mussolini called himself “IL DUCE” (The Chief)

19 Adolf Hitler (Germany)
Joined politics after WWI – wanted to avenge Germany’s loss Organized Nazi Party; tried to seize power in 1923 – but was arrested While in prison – wrote Mein Kampf Spoke about Germany racial superiority (German Aryans were superior; all others – like Jews, Slavs, Gypsies – were inferior) Stated German need for Lebensraum – living space

20 Hitler’s Policies Banned all political parties
Created a black-uniformed, secret police unit called the SS (Schutzstaffel) Massive building program put millions to work – ending the Depression in Germany

21 Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
Communist leader (Russia became Communist after WWI) Controlled every aspect of people’s lives Attempted to create the “ideal” Communist state Elimination of all private industry Collectivized all farms into state-run agriculture Transformed Soviet Union into industrial giant (Five Year Plans) **Eliminated all competition to achieve his goals (millions killed or sent to forced labor camps) **The Great Purge (8-13 million “enemies of the people” killed)



24 New Government for Japan
Japan seemed peaceful and had a democratic government in the 1920s However, few in government could control the military (who reported directly to the emperor) When hard economic times hit Japan (caused by the Depression), the military installed a new government that was centered around the Emperor – for whom the military would rule in the name of

25 Goals for Japan’s Militarists
Expand empire overseas Improve economy through imperialism Form a Pacific Empire that included China BENEFITS OF THE EMPIRE ARE… Could access much needed raw materials Could have an empire that included billions of people to trade with New empire would give “living space” for rising population

26 Where Japan could find a solution for what they desired…

27 Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931

28 Japan’s invasions 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northeastern China - rich in natural resources) League of Nations protested action, but did nothing to stop Japan Japan simply left League of Nations in 1933 1937 – Japan invaded the rest of China (captured Beijing and Nanjing – where thousands of civilians were killed) – “Rape of Nanjing”

29 Italy invades Ethiopia
Mussolini saw the League of Nations do nothing to stop Japan Envious of Britain & France’s holdings in Africa Invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 – the spears and swords of Ethiopia no match for tanks, guns, and planes of Italy League of Nations – take no action to stop Italy

30 Germany Begins Conquests
1936 – Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland (German region near the French border) WWI treaty said no German troops here French Gov’t and League of Nations – TAKE NO ACTION


32 German-Italian Alliance
Germany and Italy formed the Axis Powers Now – two dictators with stated goals of expansion are good friends Axis Powers help Spain’s Fascist military overthrow its elected government (Spanish Civil War) Mussolini and Hitler

33 Hitler begins his own Conquests
1938 – Hitler and the Germans invade Austria (most Austrians spoke German and welcomed becoming a part of Germany) But…Hitler and the Germans were expanding – and the WWI treaty told them not to…

34 The Sudetenland After taking Austria – Hitler wanted more
His next desire is the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia Small area of Western Czech where many German-speakers lived The Czechs didn’t want to give this area to Germany – nor did France and Russia

35 Germany’s Expansion

36 “Appeasement” at Munich
The British step in to offer a peace and avoid war British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler in Munich, Germany They agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland Hitler has to promise he is done seeking territory

37 Reactions to Munich Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister who came up with the agreement, said that he had achieved “peace in our time” Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister, said: “Britain and France had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war, too.”

38 Hitler breaks his promise: Germany Starts the War
After being given Sudetenland – Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia Hitler then signs a Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin and the Soviet Union (they agree to not make war on each other) – now France and Britain have lost an ally in Stalin Immediately after – Germany invades Poland in Sept (France & Britain declare war on Germany) WWII officially begins The Non-Aggression Pact was publicly a peace treaty, but in reality just a ploy by Hitler and Stalin to divide up Eastern Europe

39 The “Conquered” World - 1942

40 Hitler’s Lightning War
Hitler introduced the “Blitzkrieg” – or ‘Lightning War’ – as his principle strategy Took the enemy by surprise using fast moving tanks and airplanes – followed by infantry soldiers

41 Hitler Attacks Western Europe
April 1940 – Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway (he wanted coastline areas to launch future attacks on Britain) May 1940 – Hitler attacks Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and eventually France France fell in June 1940 French Gen. Charles de Gaulle fled to London and set up a government-in-exile


43 Hitler Attacks Britain
P.M. Winston Churchill declared that England would “never surrender” Germany’s effort began with bombing campaigns – first airfields & factories, then civilian sections of cities Britain had radar and a code-making machine called the Enigma The Battle of Britain continued to June 1941 – until Hitler decided to put resources elsewhere

44 Hitler invades the Soviet Union
June 22, 1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union Desire “lebensraum” (living space) 5 million-man Russian Army not equipped nor prepared for Hitler Germans moved 500 miles into Russia – who simply retreated and burned


46 The Lend-Lease Act Before U.S. is in war, FDR wanted to help the Allies in Europe (especially England) Wanted the U.S. to be “the great arsenal of democracy” U.S. lends weapons & equipment worth $50 billion


48 Great Britain United States Netherlands France

49 Problems in the Pacific
Japan dreamed of a vast Asia-Pacific Empire 1941 – European powers “distracted” Japan was in need of raw materials took Manchuria in ’31 French Indochina in Aug ‘41 The U.S. cut off oil shipments to Japan to punish their aggression Only obstacle for Japan dominating region: U.S. Navy in Pacific. War seemed imminent. But Where? When?


51 The Attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 Massive air assault / Pacific Fleet badly damaged 2,400 Americans killed / 18 ships FDR: “A date which will live in infamy” America officially enters war

52 U.S.S. Arizona

53 America’s Response President Roosevelt asks Congress to Declare War on Japan Famous speech: FDR declares that “December 7, 1941 is a day which will live in infamy” Watch clip

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