Presentation on theme: "Blood Glucose Lab. Review of Biochemistry Glucose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar). Respiration – a process in cells where glucose is broken down for."— Presentation transcript:
Review of Biochemistry Glucose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar). Respiration – a process in cells where glucose is broken down for energy Polysaccharide - many sugars joined together
Glycogen – a polysaccharide –Many glucose molecules joined together –When you have extra glucose, your liver joins glucose molecules together and makes glycogen –Acts like a temporary glucose storage
Review of Digestion and Circulation When you eat carbohydrates your digestive system breaks the complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides and disaccharides) into monosaccharides (like glucose). The monosaccharides (like glucose) are absorbed into the blood from the small intestine. The blood carries glucose to all cells of the body so they can make energy.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine system – chemical signaling by hormones Endocrine glands – hormone secreting organs Hormones – chemical signals that are secreted into body fluids (usually blood) and communicate regulatory messages throughout body –Regulate growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior
PANCREAS Islets of Langerhans - endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas In the Islets of Langerhans: –Alpha cells make glucagon –Beta cells make insulin –Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones. –Both hormones are secreted into the blood from the Pancreas
Metabolic balance requires a minimum of 90 mg glucose/100 ml blood. When blood glucose rises over 90mg/100ml: –Insulin lowers blood glucose by stimulating body cells to take in glucose (take it out of blood). –Insulin also slows glycogen breakdown in liver so less glucose.
Before blood glucose reaches 90mg/100ml: –Glucagon signals liver cells to break down glycogen into glucose and release glucose into blood –Signals liver cells to convert amino acids and glycerol into glucose and release glucose into blood
Glucose homeostasis maintained by insulin and glucagon
Diabetes Mellitus Caused by a deficiency of insulin or loss of response in target tissues (body cells) Result is high blood glucose levels – so high that a diabetic’s urine contains glucose More glucose in urine means more water needed in urine = thirst When cells don’t get the glucose they need they break down fat instead, which forms harmful, acidic metabolites.
Type I diabetes mellitus –Insulin dependent –Autoimmune disease where immune system attacks pancreas ( cells) and cannot make insulin –“Juvenile” (adults too) –Inheritance may play a minor role –Potentially caused by infections
Type II diabetes mellitus –Non-insulin dependent –Often inherited (although related to poor diets and lack of exercise) –Either insulin deficient or lack of response in target cells –Accounts for 90% of all diabetics –7 th most common cause of death in the USA –Gastric by-pass surgery (duodenum and jejunum removal) ends diabetes in most obese patients
Gestational diabetes – happens to pregnant women (may be from hormones from placenta causing insulin resistance in mom)