Presentation on theme: "Describe characteristics of early man Explain impact of geography on human societies Analyze cave art for clues of technology, religion Describe how human."— Presentation transcript:
Describe characteristics of early man Explain impact of geography on human societies Analyze cave art for clues of technology, religion Describe how human lifestyles changed Neolithic Era Objectives
How do we know how humans lived thousands of years ago? Archaeologists study Artifacts (man-made objects) Anthropologists study culture ( a people’s unique way of life) Paleontologists study fossils
During the Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) Humans (Homo Sapiens) emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Homo Sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. (Every continent except Antarctica!) Land and ice bridges connected the continents.
How did humans migrate from Asia into the Americas? Land/Ice Bridges connected Siberia and Alaska
Today, the body of water that once formed an ice bridge between Russia and Alaska is called the Bering Strait
Early humans were hunters and gatherers who survived by hunting animals and gathering wild plants, berries and nuts for food. They had to adapt to their physical environment. How?
Early human societies (hunter-gatherer societies) Were nomadic (migrated in search of food, water and shelter) Invented the first tools, including simple weapons Learned how to make fire Lived in clans Developed oral language Created “cave art”
Archaeologists use a scientific method called Carbon Dating to tell the age of fossils and artifacts Add this to your notes.
As rising sea levels eliminated land bridges, societies became isolated in the Americas, islands, and Australia. Aborigines are believed to be descended from the first humans who migrated to Australia during the Paleolithic era.
Agriculture develops Seeds scattered at a regular campsite result in crops the following season The agricultural revolution begins and over the next several hundred years, many societies begin to farm. Agriculture first developed in the Middle East.
What is a Revolution? What was revolutionary about the development of Agriculture? It completely changed The way people lived. It led to villages, then cities, then Civilization.
Societies during the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) Developed agriculture Settled in permanent Settlements – they were no longer nomadic Domesticated animals Used advanced tools Made pottery Developed weaving skills
Growing food instead of hunting and gathering food requires different skills: Paleolithic skills Neolithic skills Hunting Gathering Following wild herds Making simple tools Finding Caves to live in Planting Harvesting Herding domesticated animals Making advanced tools for farming, weapons, containers for seed and food storage Caves? No. Permanent settlements Result: A Population explosion
Agricultural Revolution Causes Effects Climate Changes Global warming Scattering of seeds led to crops People become sedentary living in permanent settlements Job specialization Population explosion Growth of villages into Cities
Agriculture changed everything – It was a revolution because it led to: Recor Ad Co Advanced J Job Specialization Advanced Cities Complex Institutions Record Keeping Advanced Technology Civilization
Aleppo and Jericho Were early cities in the Fertile Crescent studied by archaeologists is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently under excavation in Anatolia or Asia Minor Catal Huyuk Stable communities such as these came during the Neolithic period. Add to notes
With the development of agriculture, human no longer merely adapted to their environment. They learned to control their environment. Example: growing crops, domesticating animals such as goats and developing irrigation systems to control flooding.
Stonehenge, located in England provides a perfect example of humans controlling their environment. Talk to your neighbor – write down three questions you have about Stonehenge.