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ch.4 quiz practice problems:121(1-6) standard: 1g terms: 127 mastering concept: 146(39-58) article: 131 Cornell notes: sec 5.2 Sec. Assessment: 134 (13-15) 1

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Section 5-2 Section 5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom Compare the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom. atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element, is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Explain the impact of de Broglie's wave article duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle on the current view of electrons in atoms. Identify the relationships among a hydrogen atom's energy levels, sublevels, and atomic orbitals.

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Part 1: write a summary of how each scientist contributed to the quantum atomic theory Part 2: color s, p, d, f blocks on the periodic table. – You need to pick up: periodic table and 4 different colored pencils – (see p. 161) Bohr De Broglie Heisenberg Schrödinger p. 127p. 129 p. 131

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Section 5-2 Section 5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom (cont.) ground state quantum number de Broglie equation Heisenberg uncertainty principle Wavelike properties of electrons help relate atomic emission spectra, energy states of atoms, and atomic orbitals. quantum mechanical model of the atom atomic orbital principal quantum number principal energy level energy sublevel

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom Bohr correctly predicted the frequency lines in hydrogen’s atomic emission spectrum. The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its ground state.ground state When an atom gains energy, it is in an excited state.

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.) Bohr suggested that an electron moves around the nucleus only in certain allowed circular orbits.

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.) Each orbit was given a number, called the quantum number.quantum number

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.) Hydrogen’s single electron is in the n = 1 orbit in the ground state. When energy is added, the electron moves to the n = 2 orbit.

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.)

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.)

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Section 5-2 Bohr's Model of the Atom (cont.) Bohr’s model explained the hydrogen’s spectral lines, but failed to explain any other element’s lines. The behavior of electrons is still not fully understood, but it is known they do not move around the nucleus in circular orbits.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) hypothesized that particles, including electrons, could also have wavelike behaviors.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.) The figure illustrates that electrons orbit the nucleus only in whole-number wavelengths.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.) The de Broglie equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics.de Broglie equation represents wavelengths h is Planck's constant. m represents mass of the particle. represents frequency.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.) Heisenberg showed it is impossible to take any measurement of an object without disturbing it. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time.Heisenberg uncertainty principle The only quantity that can be known is the probability for an electron to occupy a certain region around the nucleus.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.)

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.) Schrödinger treated electrons as waves in a model called t quantum mechanical model of the atom.quantum mechanical model of the atom Schrödinger’s equation applied equally well to elements other than hydrogen.

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Section 5-2 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom (cont.) The wave function predicts a three-dimensional region around the nucleus called the atomic orbital.atomic orbital

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Section 5-2 Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals Principal quantum numberPrincipal quantum number (n) indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbitals. n specifies the atom’s major energy levels, called the principal energy levels. principal energy levels

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Section 5-2 Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals (cont.) Energy sublevelsEnergy sublevels are contained within the principal energy levels.

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Section 5-2 Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals (cont.) Each energy sublevel relates to orbitals of different shape.

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Section 5-2 Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals (cont.)

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