3 Biomolecules Vocabulary Atom: smallest unit of matter (not alive)Most biomolecules are made of these atoms:Carbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Oxygen (O)Nitrogen (N)Phosphorus (P)
4 Examples: Water (H2O) and Salt (NaCl) Molecule: group of atoms bonded togetherExamples: Water (H2O) and Salt (NaCl)are common molecules
5 Organic compounds: these are molecules that contain carbon (C) biomolecules are organic compoundsFat (lipids)Sugar (carbohydrates)Amino acid (proteins)
6 Monomer: simple molecules that link up to form a bigger compound (polymer) (It is kind of like one link in a chain.)
7 Polymer: molecules of many repeating units Macromolecules: large polymers3 monomersPolymer
8 Biomolecules: organic molecules needed for life ProteinsNucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)Carbohydrates (sugars)Lipids (Fats)
9 Pair Share Which molecule is an organic compound? How can you tell? NaClC6H12O2O2How can you tell?
10 CarbohydratesFunction: Used by all cells for energy and used by plants for structure.Structure: Includes all sugars, from simple sugars to complex polymer sugars.Energy is stored in the bonds between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
11 Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharides: One ring sugar (simple sugar) Types of Carbohydrates1. Monosaccharides: One ring sugar (simple sugar)Ex : Glucose , fructose2. Disaccharides: Two ring sugarsSucrose (table sugar)= glucose + fructoseMaltose (beer sugar) = glucose + glucose
12 Carbohydrates 3. Polysaccharides: Many Ring sugars Starch: stores energy in plants.Glycogen: stores energy in animals.Cellulose: gives plant structural support.
13 A few examples of polysaccharides: Starch – found in the potatoGlycogen – found in human muscles & in the liver.Cellulose – another form of plant polysaccharide. Humans cannot digest it!
14 Cellulose = dietary fiber. Helps “scrub” out your digestive tract.
15 Pair ShareWhat type of carbohydrate is the single-ring sugar called glucose:Monosaccharide?Disaccharide?Polysaccharide?
16 Lipids Structure: Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules bonded together Large molecule (not a polymer)A fatty acid is lots of carbons bonded to hydrogens.Functions:Part of cell membrane (phospholipid)energy storageto cushion organsinsulation
17 This lipid has 3 glycerols and their fatty acids bonded together Lipid StructureFatty AcidGlycerolThis lipid has 3 glycerols and their fatty acids bonded together
18 A few examples of dietary fats: (don’t copy this slide) Unsaturated fatsUnsaturated fats are found in many plant products, such as olive and canola oils, nuts, avocadoes, and also found in fish.Saturated fats should be eaten in moderation, since they can lead to cholesterol build-up and heart disease.
19 Pair ShareWhat is the most important function of a lipid?
20 Proteins Structure: A chain of amino acids also called polypeptides. different proteins have different sequences and amounts of amino acidsFunctions:Creates skin, muscle, hair, teeth, bone & other body structuresHelp transport materials from cell to cellAllows cells to signal each otherUsed in immune system defenseEnzymes
21 Protein structure is based on the sequence of amino acids.
22 Pair ShareWhy is a protein an example of a macromolecule?
23 Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids – DNA , RNA Structure – polymer is made up of nucleotide monomersNucleotideFunctionMakes up the genetic code; provides instructions for making proteins.