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Macromolecules in Biology (also known as biomolecules)

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules in Biology (also known as biomolecules)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules in Biology (also known as biomolecules)
Chapter 2


3 Biomolecules Vocabulary
Atom: smallest unit of matter (not alive) Most biomolecules are made of these atoms: Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P)

4 Examples: Water (H2O) and Salt (NaCl)
Molecule: group of atoms bonded together Examples: Water (H2O) and Salt (NaCl) are common molecules

5 Organic compounds: these are molecules that contain carbon (C)
biomolecules are organic compounds Fat (lipids) Sugar (carbohydrates) Amino acid (proteins)

6 Monomer: simple molecules that link up to form a bigger compound (polymer)
(It is kind of like one link in a chain.)

7 Polymer: molecules of many repeating units
Macromolecules: large polymers 3 monomers Polymer

8 Biomolecules: organic molecules needed for life
Proteins Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) Carbohydrates (sugars) Lipids (Fats)

9 Pair Share Which molecule is an organic compound? How can you tell?
NaCl C6H12O2 O2 How can you tell?

10 Carbohydrates Function: Used by all cells for energy and used by plants for structure. Structure: Includes all sugars, from simple sugars to complex polymer sugars. Energy is stored in the bonds between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

11 Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharides: One ring sugar (simple sugar)
Types of Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharides: One ring sugar (simple sugar) Ex : Glucose , fructose 2. Disaccharides: Two ring sugars Sucrose (table sugar)= glucose + fructose Maltose (beer sugar) = glucose + glucose

12 Carbohydrates 3. Polysaccharides: Many Ring sugars
Starch: stores energy in plants. Glycogen: stores energy in animals. Cellulose: gives plant structural support.

13 A few examples of polysaccharides:
Starch – found in the potato Glycogen – found in human muscles & in the liver. Cellulose – another form of plant polysaccharide. Humans cannot digest it!

14 Cellulose = dietary fiber. Helps “scrub” out your digestive tract.

15 Pair Share What type of carbohydrate is the single-ring sugar called glucose: Monosaccharide? Disaccharide? Polysaccharide?

16 Lipids Structure: Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules bonded together
Large molecule (not a polymer) A fatty acid is lots of carbons bonded to hydrogens. Functions: Part of cell membrane (phospholipid) energy storage to cushion organs insulation

17 This lipid has 3 glycerols and their fatty acids bonded together
Lipid Structure Fatty Acid Glycerol This lipid has 3 glycerols and their fatty acids bonded together

18 A few examples of dietary fats: (don’t copy this slide)
Unsaturated fats Unsaturated fats are found in many plant products, such as olive and canola oils, nuts, avocadoes, and also found in fish. Saturated fats should be eaten in moderation, since they can lead to cholesterol build-up and heart disease.

19 Pair Share What is the most important function of a lipid?

20 Proteins Structure: A chain of amino acids also called polypeptides.
different proteins have different sequences and amounts of amino acids Functions: Creates skin, muscle, hair, teeth, bone & other body structures Help transport materials from cell to cell Allows cells to signal each other Used in immune system defense Enzymes

21 Protein structure is based on the sequence of amino acids.

22 Pair Share Why is a protein an example of a macromolecule?

23 Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids – DNA , RNA
Structure – polymer is made up of nucleotide monomers Nucleotide Function Makes up the genetic code; provides instructions for making proteins.

24 DNA Polymer

25 Pair Share Why are DNA and RNA examples of macromolecules?

26 Pair Share In your own words, define macromolecule.

27 Copy this dichotomous key to quickly identify biomolecules.
Does it have a ring structure in its main chain?

28 Biomolecule Crash Course Video (14 min.)

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