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The Danish Soil Classification From 1939 to 1975 the farmland area dropped from 32.000 sqkm to 28.000 sqkm It raised a need for soil maps for planning.

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Presentation on theme: "The Danish Soil Classification From 1939 to 1975 the farmland area dropped from 32.000 sqkm to 28.000 sqkm It raised a need for soil maps for planning."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Danish Soil Classification From 1939 to 1975 the farmland area dropped from 32.000 sqkm to 28.000 sqkm It raised a need for soil maps for planning and administration purposes at national and county level The Danish government decided to finance a national soil mapping

2 The Danish Soil Classification 1975-1980: Soil mapping of the agriculture land mainly based on soil texture of the topsoil 1980-1985: Additional soil map on subsoil texture, landform and wetland and the establishment of a Danish pedological soil analytical database 1985-1990: Modelling and thematic maps

3 Basic requirements The areas should be classified on the basis of permanent stable characteristics There should be a national standard code of reference that would make it possible to classify as uniform as possible The results should clearly illustrate the range of fertile and infertile soils The maps should be made in such a way that they might be used in future regional planning The mapping should be finished within 3 years (price app. 600.000 Euro)

4 The soil map, scale 1:50.000 Classified area Texture of the plowlayer and subsoil (12 classes) Slope (3 classes) Subsoil geology (app. 50 classes) Not classified area Urban zone Forest Coastal dune sands, small arable areas, lakes etc

5 Organisation In December 1975 ADK was established to undertake the soil sampling, database handling and construction of the maps at scale 1:50.000. Crew: 3 AC and 1 technician + some students from the Universities. The soil sampling was done by local agronomists and the soil analyses were done at a research laboratory.

6 Mapping slopes and surface geology Slope classes Three slope classes delineated on topographic maps at scale 1:25000 12 degrees Surface geology Dominant surface geology is shown in a 25ha grid based on the Danish geological surveys map which cover 75% of the country

7 Soil sampling for texture analyses ADK distributed topographic maps and questionnaires to local agronomists (advisors) who registered existing texture analyses The agronomists were asked to recommend suitable locations for forthcoming soil sampling ADK combined the recommendation with infor- mation on topography and surface geology and the final sampling sites were chosen The agronomists undertook the soil sampling. 36000 topsoil samples (0-20cm) and 6000 subsoil samples (35-55cm) were taken

8 Sampling sites

9 Analyses Texture: 2 m, 20 m, (63 m), 200 m, 2000 m Hydrometer method and sieving Organic C: Determined by a Leco-apparatus Lime: Determined by treating the samples with HCl and capture the carbondioxide in bariumhydroxide

10 Texture analyses

11 Sample library

12 Texture classification

13 Map construction The borders on the soil maps were drawn by the crew at ADK in cooperation with the local agronomists The drawing of the borderlines was based on the texture analyses, landscape analyses, the surface geology maps and the local knowledge from the agronomists involved. The maps were digitized and all analytical data were stored in a database. The software was developed as a Ph.D. study at Århus University

14 Soil map from Aabenraa

15 Soil map of Ribe

16 Soil map of Denmark

17 Additional soil maps 1980-1985 Geomorphological map Subsoil texture map Wetland map Potential acid sulfate soil Soil map of the forests

18 Geomorphological map of Denmark

19 Geological Surveys map of Gislum, 1:25000

20 Subsoil texture

21 Incircled wetlands on a topographic map

22 Wetlands

23 Soil chemical and physical data By combining the different soil maps an area can be characterized as follows: Topsoil: Fine sand (MCC2) Subsoil: loam (MCC5) Drainange: not wetland Geomorphology: Weichsel moraine In order to use the soil maps in planning there is a huge need for soil profile analytical data, chemical as well as physical

24 Profile sampling sites

25 Soil classification

26 Classification system The classification based exclusively on field observations. Describe the main pedological development within 120cm. Describe the presence of gley, lithic and limestone contact within 3 sections of the profile: 0-40, 40-80 & 80-120 cm Describe the thickness and carbon content of the A-horizon Describe the presence of fragipan, placic horizon, degradated B-horizons, cementation, calcic horizons

27 Danish soil classification system, soil orders

28 Danish soil classification system, soil groups Group leveI 1 2 3 Lessive ranker* gley* podzol rendzin* pseudogley* brunjord degra stagnogley* brunsol blandings typi *begin at 40-80cm Example: Degralessive Podzolpseudogleytypilessive

29 Danish soil classification system, soil series Gley, lime and lithic contact in the soil section 80-120 cm Placic horizon, fragipan, cementation, degradated Bt or Bs horizons, natric horizons, all within 1.2 meter depth entic A-horizons ( 20%OM. Example: kolluvial pseudogleyey Typilessive entic Degralessive

30 Soil name at order, group and series Podzol (A-E-Bh-Bs-C) 1)Typipodzol (gley > 120cm depth) 2) gleyey Typipodzol (gley 80-120cm) 3) Gleytypipodzol (gley 40-80cm) 4) Podzolgley (gley 0-40cm)

31 Danish pedological soil classification system

32 Transformation of soil names to figures

33 Finding special soil types Podzols with placic horizons Order 06; group 26 = all podzols + series 13 = placic Soils with Bt and lime beginning below 80-120 cm Order 05; group 25 = soils with Bt + Series 16 + 17 = lime beginning below 80 cm Soils with deep A-horizons Order 07 = A horizons deeper the 80 cm + series 01 = A horizons 40-80 cm deep

34 Soil toposequence based on soil classification for every 25 meter on the pipeline


36 Profile description

37 Rendzinleptosol on Senon limestone Cambisol in calcareous loamy till

38 Luvisols

39 Podzoluvisols

40 Regosol and arenosol

41 Podzols


43 Gleysols

44 Inner marsh clay upon a podzol Fluvisol in outer marsh deposits

45 Histosols, one developed on a former podzol

46 Histosols

47 Soil profile description scheme

48 Analyses Texture (hydrometer + sieving) Total carbon (dry combustion) Total nitrogen (Kjeldahl) Total organic and inorganic phosphorous pH(H 2 O) and pH(CaCl 2 ) Lime content (Scheibler) Exchangeable acidity at pH 8.1 (Pipers method) Exchangeable bases (NH 4 Ac-extraction at pH7) DCB, oxalate and pyrophosphate iron and aluminium KCl-extractable H and Al Soil water retention (Pressure plate apparatus)

49 The use of the databases Protection of fertile farmland around towns Irrigation need for agriculture production at county level Irrigation permission Hunting zones Economical compensation for drainage The potential drainage need at national level Mapping of potential set aside area Carbon storage in Danish soils Nitrate leaching from farmland Potentially acid sulfate soil

50 Example of rules for irrigation permission Ribe County If a farmer wants to irrigate his fields he has to get a soil texture analyses of the plowlayer and send it to the county administration. They use the following equation derived from the soil profile analytical database PAW: 2.34*OM% + 0.70*clay + 0.47*silt + 0.18*FS + 3.68 If PAW < 20 the farmer may irrigate with 100mm/ha If PAW is 20-30 the farmer may irrigate with 75mm/ha If PAW is >30 the farmer may irrigate with 50mm/ha

51 Root Zone Capacity Based on the texture analyses from the Danish Soil Classification and the geological map, soil profiles at 36.000 sites are constructed with texture in the depth: 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-120 cm. Based on the soil profile analytical database the following equations between water content at FC and PWP (vol%) can be established: FC=2.34*%OM + 0.70*%clay + 0.47*%silt + 0.18%*FS + 3.68, r 2 =0.84 PWP=0.55*%OM + 0.63*%clay + 0.18*silt + 1.12 r 2 =0.89 Based on root studies an effective root depth for crops in relation to soil type can be determined and RZC for water in mm can be calculated

52 Root zone capacity for barley

53 Mean irrigation need for barley production

54 Potential drainage need

55 Set aside areas in Denmark

56 FAO 1974 soil map

57 EC-soil map scale 1:1.000.000 - 1985

58 FAO 1990


60 FAO-soil types on sandy parent materials

61 FAO-soil map

62 FAO Soil Map Denmark

63 FAO-legend

64 FAO soil types in relation to landform

65 Soil analytical data, proforma 1

66 Soil analytical data, proforma 2

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