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Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe

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Presentation on theme: "Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe
The Institute for Environment and Sustainability Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe Beata Houšková - Luca Montanarella Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit Institute for Environment & Sustainability JRC TP 280 Ispra (VA), Italy 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

2 Why EU Level of intervention?
Soil degradation affects other environmental areas Distortion of the functioning of the internal market Transboundary impact Food safety International dimension 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

3 Three necessary steps of Strategies
COMMUNICATION COM(2006) 231 on the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection DIRECTIVE COM(2006) 232 establishing a framework for the protection of soil and amending Directive 2004/35/EC IMPACT ASSESSMENT SEC(2006) 620 of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection Adopted by the European Commission on 22nd of September 2006 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

4 Step 3: The Impact Assessment
Two sections: (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) The economic, social and environmental impacts of the proposed measures. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

5 Common criteria of risk identification for five major soil threats in Europe
Identification of factors/hazards related to the threat („external” factors); Characterization of the receptor relevant to the threat („internal” soil factors); - Performance specification, model selection (with data requirements). ESBN 2006: the report “Common Criteria for Risk Area Identification according to Soil Threats”. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

6 Common criteria for Soil Compaction risk identification
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7 Soil compaction as part of STS
Soil compaction is a soil degradation process, which can have natural or human origin and very often it is the integration of both. Soil compaction occurs when an applied soil stress exceeds the strength of the soil. Compaction is a process of densification and distortion in which total and air-filled porosity and permeability are reduced, strength is increased, soil structure partly destroyed and many changes are induced in the soil fabric and in various behaviour characteristics. Compaction leads to the change in soil aggregates or particles arrangement in the whole soil profile or in one or several layers. Soil compaction is a degradation process with negative impact on the environment as a whole. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

8 European soil protection policy
Framework (DPSIR) for Soil Compaction Good agricultural practice - low ground pressures - timing of cultivations - alleviation measures - conservation tillage European soil protection policy Driving Forces Pressures State Impacts Responses Agriculture intensification On-site - reduction in water storage capacity - increased soil erosion Land use practices continuous cultivation deforestation Off-site - pollution of surface waters - effects on regional drainage - flooding On-site: soil degradation compaction loss of structure Soil Protection Strategy 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

9 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

10 non-compacted soil compacted soil 25 50 75 100 125 runoff
[erosion. percolation / infiltration pollution] to surface water 25 25 seepage filtering Depth (cm) 50 50 buffering compacted layer 75 75 100 100 125 125 to groundwater Bulk density higher than 1.9 stops the ability of plant roots to grow 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

11 Natural Soil Compaction
Soil texture Generally, soils with high amount of clay (>35% or more) are more susceptible to compaction in comparison to sandy soils with lower amount of clay (<35%). Especially, clayey soils with low amount of silt fraction are susceptible to the compaction processes. Soil type Type of horizons and their arrangement in soil profile (argillic horizon); type of soil formation processes: illimerisation, gleying or podsolization 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

12 Susceptibility to natural compaction
Soil units (WRB –1994) Susceptibility to natural compaction Histosols low Anthrosols Rendzic Leptosols other Leptosols Andosols Arenosols Chernozems Phaeozems Mollic Fluvisols and Mollic Gleysoils  medium The other Fluvisols medium Eutric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols and Umbrisols Haplic Luvisols medium  The other Gleysols high Podzols Planosols Albic Luvisols and Glossisols Stagnosols 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

13 Influence of the origin of compaction on the soil profile properties - Natural soil compaction
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14 Soil compaction induced by human activities – secondary compaction
Induced by intensive or incorrect land use (agriculture, forest management); Low amount of deep rooting structure forming plants in crop rotation, e. g. fodder crops; High amount of root crops (plants risky for soil properties stability: root system, cultivation practises with high amount of crossing on the field); Low amount of organic residues. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

15 Precompression stress at a given pore water pressure pF 1
Precompression stress at a given pore water pressure pF 1.8 for topsoils of Europe in relation to a given low topsoil load (tyre inflation pressure: 60 kPa), high topsoil stress: 200 kPa). Classification of the effective soil strength by the relationship of precompression stress to soil pressure: >1.5 very stable, elastic deformation, stable, labile, >0.8 unstable, additional plastic deformation, (author: Prof. Rainer Horn). 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

16 Influence of the origin of compaction on the soil profile properties – Human induced Soil compaction
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17 Author: R. Jones 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

18 Subsoil Susceptibility to Compaction
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19 Main steps in second version map construction
Delineation of areas susceptible to natural compation Delineation of areas susceptible to human – induced compaction Delineation of areas susceptible to combined compation 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

20 Source of data European Soil Database (STU, SMU units) 1:1 M and/or 1 km grid MARS 50 km grid soil suitability for different crops and evaluation of climate CAPRI 1 km grid the probability of crop cultivation according to the type of crop DTM Digital Terrain Model of spatial resolution 30 m (DTED Level 2 or SRTM 30); DTM 90m spatial resolution can give satisfactory results only for terrain relief of high variability. (Maximal slope (8%, 10%) admissible to heavy machines) EUROSTAT Statistical and economical data about number and types of machines, type of agriculture (rotation) and intensity of stock-raising. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

21 European Soil Database
The database consists from four components: The Soil Geographical Database of Europe at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE), which is a digitized European soil map and related attributes; The PedoTransfer Rules Database (PTRDB), version 2.0, which holds a number of pedotransfer rules which can be applied to the SGDBE; The Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE); The Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES). 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

22 Structure of ESDB Coverage The digital form of the soil map in ArcInfo database consisting from geometric and semantic datasets; Polygons - with areas greaten than 25 km2; polygon can belong just to 1 SMU Soil Mapping Units (SMU) – geometric part of ESDB. They are represented on the map at least by one polygon but can be composed of several polygons and comprise at least 1 STU – recommendation: max 5 STUs – soil associations Soil typological units (STU) – semantic part of ESDB. They define the soil type having the set of homogeneous properties for defined area. The sum of % of STUs in 1 SMU = 100%; Each STU must correspond at least to 5% of the total area of SMU, otherwise it is ignored. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

23 European Soil Database: WRB classification
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24 Natural compaction delineation
Visualization of soil cover for whole area (practical visualization by database 1:250,000 sheets or by administrative units - NUTS). Elimination of areas unaffected by compaction. Realization: soil covers - (forest + built up areas + water bodies + devasted areas + rocks) – terrain with slope >10%. Result: agriculture areas potentially affected by compaction or susceptible to compaction. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

25 Result of this step: 3 maps
STU according to their susceptibility to compaction Soil Texture Classes according to their susceptibility to compaction Intersection of susceptibility for compaction: soil type & texture 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

26 Human-induced compaction delineation
Delineation of areas with high percentage of farm larger then 50 ha delineation of areas with high probability of use of heavy machines (large parcels, large farms, heavy soils). Delineation of pastures with intensive grazing Delineation of areas with high percentage of root crops 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

27 Presentation of Results
Maps with polygons showing 4 classes of soil compaction 0 - no risk of compaction 1 - low risk of compaction 2 - medium risk of compaction 3 - high risk of compaction 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

28 EU Policy Issues Addressed by IES ...
GMES Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading EU Global Development Policies Fuel Directives Emissions from Road Transport Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Water Framework Directive Marine Thematic Strategy Flood Risk Management European Flood Alert System Development Technical Body Soil Thematic Strategy Forest Focus Scientific Coordination Body Thematic Urban Strategy INSPIRE Technical Coordinator Renewable Energies & Electricity Efficiency ENERGY STAR Technical Coordinator Management of Natural Resources Environmental Technology Action Plan (ETAP) Radiation Environmental Monitoring European Information System Operator Environment and Health 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

29 COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No. 1782/2003 of 29 September 2003
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30 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

31 Preventing further soil degradation and preserving its functions:
Overall objective Preventing further soil degradation and preserving its functions: when soil is used and its functions are exploited, action has to be taken on soil use and management patterns, and when soil acts as a sink/receptor of the effects of human activities or environmental phenomena, action has to be taken at source. Restoring degraded soils to a level of functionality consistent at least with current and intended use, thus also considering the cost implications of the restoration of soil. 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

32 Thank you for your interest !
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33 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07

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