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Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust
SHAMA DIDLA University of Aberdeen Supervision: Dr. Kathryn Mearns & Prof. Rhona Flin Sponsoring company: Centrica Energy

2 Setting the scene: Attention to safety management: Away from technical
Industrial accidents: Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984) Chernobyl nuclear plant (1986) Piper Alpha (1988) Attention to safety management: Away from technical approach to human factors Piper Alpha (1988) Core ingredient in shaping safety climate: Management’s commitment to safety Leadership style of managers and supervisors Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984)

3 Transformational and Transactional Leadership:
Bass (1985) Transactional Leadership (TA): An exchange relationship between leaders and followers. Transformational leadership (TF): Leaders motivate followers to achieve performance expectations by transforming followers’ attitudes and beliefs. Augmentation effect of TF over TA: Heightened motivation TF Peformance beyond Expectations i.e. Safety citizenship behaviours TA Expected performance

4 AIM Previous research focus: perceived safety climate (Barling, et al.,2002), safety consciousness, safety communication and safety commitment (Hofmann & Morgeson,1999). Our aim: To understand the psychological mechanisms of the relationship between leadership and subordinates’ safety citizenship behaviors. Leadership Psychological mechanisms Subordinates’ safety citizenship behaviour Trust

5 Trust: The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). Trust has been suggested as the foundation of safety culture (Reason, 1997). Important for safety communication (Clarke, 1998) and safety initiatives (Donald & Young, 1996). Important ingredient in performing safely (Fleming & Lardner, 2001).

6 Safety Citizenship Behavior:
An individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Dennis & Organ,1983). Social Exchange Theory (Blau, 1964) SCB = helping + voicing one’s opinions +exhibiting stewardship civic virtue + whistle-blowing + changing one’s workplace (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003).

7 Method: Questionnaires distributed to 500 employees
114 returns: 72 (workforce level) & 42 (supervisory level) Measures: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire - 45 items (Bass & Avolio, 1999) Trust Climate and Safety Questionnaire - 24 items (Conchie, 2003) Safety Citizenship Behavior Scale - 27 items (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003) Job categories: production, maintenance, administration, engineering Onshore: 78 Offshore : 35 Centrica: 70 Contracting company: 44

8 Descriptives of the sample *p < .01 level
Variables M SD α 1 2 3 4 5 1.Transformational leadership 2.00 0.83 0.93 2. Contingent reward 2.18 0.99 0.84 0.86* 3. Management by exception 1.98 0.82 0.65 0.41* 0.45* 4. Passive avoidant 1.19 0.85 -0.48* -0.13 5. Trust 5.20 1.14 0.91 0.70* 0.68* 0.16* -0.57* 6. OCB 3.42 0.88 0.98 0.27* 0.28* 0.18* -0.05

9 Dependent variable: Trust in the leader
Hypothesis 1: TF augments TA TF accounted for 3% additional variance in trust in the leader Dependent variable: Trust in the leader Transactional Leadership Mean SD R2 ∆ R2 F ß Contingent reward 2.20 0.99 0.57* 47.81* 0.28* MBEA 1.96 0.83 0.57 -0.14* PA 1.19 -0.28* Transformational Leadership 2.01 0.82 0.60 0.03* 40.88* 0.38*

10 Testing the mediation model
Multiple regression analysis Baron & Kenny’s guidelines (1986) to test mediation effects significant MEDIATOR PREDICTOR PREDICTOR OUTCOME MEDIATOR TRUST PREDICTOR TF & TA significant significant OUTCOME SCB non-significant

11 Hypothesis 2 Trust mediated the relationship between TF & TA leadership and SCB
Dependent variables Trust SCB Leadership Behavior Independent variables TF + CR ß = 0.46* R2 = 0.53* ß = 0.27* R2 = 0.07* ß = 0.14, ns ß = 0.15, ns R2 = 0.09* MBEA ß = * R2 = 0.55* ß = 0.18 R2 =0.03, ns Mediation model not applicable PA ß = -0.28* R2 = 0.61* ß = R2 = 0.03, ns mediation model not applicable

12 Hypothesis 3 Leader’s behaviours: Antecedents to trust (Regression analysis)
Justice perceptions 48% variance Personal identification with the leader TRUST 12% additional variance Empowerment perceptions Perceived organizational support

13 Conclusions Leadership behavior is effective if it is both transactional and transformational. For performance beyond expectations, we need more transformational leaders! Role of trust is two-fold: Plays a major role in the dynamics of leadership in influencing subordinates’ citizenship behaviors. It is what a leader ‘does’ and not what a leader ‘is’ that helps him/her gain the trust of the workforce i.e. firstly, a leader should implement fair practices and secondly, the workforce should be able to personally identify with him/her and share common goals with regards to the organization.


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