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Chapter 6 – Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 – Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 – Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development

2 Psychosocial Development
Emotions Initiative versus guilt The self Guilt versus shame Motivation Play

3 Play- Play is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake Play is universal Form of play changes with age and culture

4 Peers and Parents Peers:
People of about the same age and social status Provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding Children usually prefer to play with each other rather than with their parents Types of play

5 Changing Social Circumstances
Types of Play (Midred Parten, 1932)- as social awareness increases, so do types of play. Solitary play: Onlooker play: Parallel play: Associative play: Cooperative play:

6 Active Play Rough-and-tumble play: Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.

7 Sociodramatic Play Sociodramatic play: Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.

8 Play Based on the work of parent child interaction therapy
Quality play criteria: Parents make no demands No Follow lead of children Engage under the direction of children Take PRIDE in your play!! P- R- I- D – E-

9 Parenting Styles Diana Baumrind (1967, 1971). Parents differ on four important dimensions: Expressions of warmth Strategies for discipline Communication Expectations for maturity

10 Figure 8.4 Control, Acceptance, Parenting Style
© 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers

11 Baumrind’s Patterns of Parenting
Authoritarian parenting Permissive parenting Authoritative parenting Neglectful/uninvolved parenting

12 Authoritarian

13 Permissive

14 Authoritative

15 Neglectful

16 Children, Parents, and the Media

17 The Significance of Content
Violence on TV is often depicted as morally acceptable. Children who watch televised violence become more violent themselves. Racial and gender stereotypes are still evident in children’s programs. Educational television may have positive effects. Experts recommend that parents limit their young children’s television viewing and spend more time talking and playing with them.

18 Moral Development Decrease in egocentrism leads to the development of:
Empathy Antipathy Empathy ideally leads to prosocial behavior

19 Types of Aggression Instrumental aggression Reactive aggression
Relational aggression Bullying aggression

20 Discipline and Children’s Thinking
Remember theory of mind. Remember emerging self-concept Remember fast-mapping. Remember that young children are not logical.

21 Punishment Physical Psychological Time Out Sensitive Discipline
Define Why it is used Outcomes Psychological Time Out Sensitive Discipline Ineffective discipline

22 Becoming Boys and Girls
Sex/Gender/Sexuality- define Continuums Doing gender Age 2: Age 4:

23 Theories of Gender Development
Psychoanalytical Theory Phallic stage Oedipus complex Superego Electra complex Identification: An attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else. Behaviorism Gender differences are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment

24 Theories of Gender Development, cont.
Social learning theory: Children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe Cognitive Theory Gender schema: A child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences. Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female, and then they think and behave accordingly. Systems theory Genes and culture, parents and peers, ideas and customs all interact, affecting each child.

25 Androgyny Androgyny: A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.

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