Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 – Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6 – Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development
2 Psychosocial Development EmotionsInitiative versus guiltThe selfGuilt versus shameMotivationPlay
3 Play-Play is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertakePlay is universalForm of play changes with age and culture
4 Peers and Parents Peers: People of about the same age and social statusProvide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understandingChildren usually prefer to play with each other rather than with their parentsTypes of play
5 Changing Social Circumstances Types of Play (Midred Parten, 1932)- as social awareness increases, so do types of play.Solitary play:Onlooker play:Parallel play:Associative play:Cooperative play:
6 Active PlayRough-and-tumble play: Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
7 Sociodramatic PlaySociodramatic play: Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
8 Play Based on the work of parent child interaction therapy Quality play criteria:Parents make no demandsNoFollow lead of childrenEngage under the direction of childrenTake PRIDE in your play!!P-R-I-D –E-
9 Parenting StylesDiana Baumrind (1967, 1971). Parents differ on four important dimensions:Expressions of warmthStrategies for disciplineCommunicationExpectations for maturity
17 The Significance of Content Violence on TV is often depicted as morally acceptable.Children who watch televised violence become more violent themselves.Racial and gender stereotypes are still evident in children’s programs.Educational television may have positive effects.Experts recommend that parents limit their young children’s television viewing and spend more time talking and playing with them.
18 Moral Development Decrease in egocentrism leads to the development of: EmpathyAntipathyEmpathy ideally leads to prosocial behavior
20 Discipline and Children’s Thinking Remember theory of mind.Remember emerging self-conceptRemember fast-mapping.Remember that young children are not logical.
21 Punishment Physical Psychological Time Out Sensitive Discipline DefineWhy it is usedOutcomesPsychologicalTime OutSensitive DisciplineIneffective discipline
22 Becoming Boys and Girls Sex/Gender/Sexuality- defineContinuumsDoing genderAge 2:Age 4:
23 Theories of Gender Development Psychoanalytical TheoryPhallic stageOedipus complexSuperegoElectra complexIdentification: An attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.BehaviorismGender differences are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment
24 Theories of Gender Development, cont. Social learning theory:Children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observeCognitive TheoryGender schema: A child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences.Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female, and then they think and behave accordingly.Systems theoryGenes and culture, parents and peers, ideas and customs all interact, affecting each child.
25 AndrogynyAndrogyny: A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.