Presentation on theme: "S ECTION 5–2: T HE M ODERN P ERIODIC T ABLE Physical Science Coach Kelsoe Pages 130–138."— Presentation transcript:
S ECTION 5–2: T HE M ODERN P ERIODIC T ABLE Physical Science Coach Kelsoe Pages 130–138
O BJECTIVES Describe the arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table. Explain how the atomic mass of an element is determined and how atomic mass units are defined. Identify general properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Describe how properties of elements change across a period in the periodic table.
T HE P ERIODIC L AW Mendeleev developed his periodic table before the discovery of protons. He did not know that atoms of two different elements could not have the same number of protons. In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged by increasing atomic number (number of protons).
P ERIODS Each row in the periodic table is called a period. Period 1 has two elements; periods 2 and 3 have 8 elements; periods 4 and 5 have 18 elements; period 6 has 32 elements. The number of elements per period varies because the number of available orbitals increases from energy level to energy level. To understand the structure, you have to understand the orbitals in each energy level.
G ROUPS Each column on the periodic table is called a group. The elements within a group have similar properties. Properties of elements repeat in a predictable way when atomic numbers are used to arrange elements into groups. The elements in a group have similar electron configurations.
G ROUPS An element’s electron configuration determines its chemical properties; therefore, members of a group in the periodic table have similar chemical properties. This pattern of repeating properties is the periodic law. There are 18 groups in our modern periodic table.
A TOMIC M ASS Most blocks on the periodic table have at least four pieces of information: name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. Atomic mass is a value that depends on the distribution of an element’s isotopes in nature and the masses of those isotopes.
A TOMIC M ASS U NITS The mass of an atom in grams is very small and not very useful because the samples of matter that scientists work with contain trillions of atoms. In order to have a convenient way to compare the masses of atoms, scientists chose one isotope to serve as a standard. Scientists assigned 12 atomic mass units to the carbon-12 atom, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. An atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
I SOTOPES OF C HLORINE In nature, most elements exist as a mixture of two or more isotopes. Chlorine exists as two isotopes – chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. To find the average atomic mass of chlorine, we take a weighted average of the masses because there are more chlorine-35 atoms in nature (75.78%) than chlorine-37 (24.22%).
W EIGHTED A VERAGES To find the average atomic mass of an element, we multiply the mass of each isotope of the element by its percentage found in nature and add the products together. For example, to find the average atomic mass of chlorine, we would do the following: Chlorine-35 = (34.969)(.7578) = 26.4995 Chlorine-37 = (36.966)(.2422) = 8.9532 26.4995 + 8.9532 = 35.4527 amu
C LASSES OF E LEMENTS The elements can be classified in many different ways – by state of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma), by nature (naturally or man-made elements), or by properties (metals, nonmetals, metalloids). The most useful way to classify elements is to classify them as either metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.
M ETALS The majority of the elements on the periodic table are metals. Metals are elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat. With the exception of mercury, metals are solids at room temperature, and are malleable (sheets) and ductile (wires).
M ETALS Some metals are extremely reactive and some do not react easily. Gold remains shiny because it does not react with the oxygen in the air. Magnesium dulls quickly because it does react with oxygen.
T RANSITION M ETALS The metals in groups 3-12 are called transition metals. Transition metals are elements that form a bridge between the elements on the left and right sides of the table. Transition metals have the ability to form compounds with distinctive colors.
N ONMETALS Nonmetals are elements that are poor conductors of heat and electric current. Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature due to their low boiling points. Some nonmetals are extremely reactive, but others are barely reactive. Fluorine is the most reactive nonmetal.
M ETALLOIDS Metalloids are elements with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals. There are eight metalloids: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine. A metalloid’s ability to conduct electric current varies with temperature (good at high temps).
V ARIATION A CROSS A P ERIOD Across a period from left to right, the elements become less metallic and more non metallic in their properties. The most reactive metals are on the left side of the periodic table and the most reactive nonmetals are on the right in group 17.
V OCABULARY Period Group Periodic law Atomic mass unit (amu) Metals Transition metals Nonmetals Metalloids