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Building Blocks of Social Structure Chapter 4 – Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Blocks of Social Structure Chapter 4 – Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Blocks of Social Structure Chapter 4 – Section 1

2 Social Structure –Network of interrelated statuses and roles Status –Socially defined position in a group/ society Role –Behavior expected of someone

3 Status Ascribed and Achieved Status –Ascribed Status Assigned according to qualities beyond persons control –Achieved Status Achieved through their own efforts

4 Master Status –Master Status Can be achieved or ascribed Master status changes over time

5 Roles –Reciprocal Roles Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction

6 Role Expectations and Role Performance –Role Expectations Socially determined behaviors –Role Performance The actual role behavior

7 Role Conflict –Role Set Different roles attached to a status –Role Conflict Occurs during role fulfillment –Role Strain Difficulty to meet the role expectations of a single status

8 Social Institutions –Social Institution Statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society What are the five major institutions?

9 Types of Social Interaction Chapter 4 – Section 2

10 Exchange –Exchange –Reciprocity –Exchange Theory People are motivated by self-interest

11 Competition –Competition People oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain Cornerstone of society?

12 Conflict –Conflict Deliberate attempt to control, oppose or harm another person Conflict can range from? Four sources of conflict

13 Cooperation –Cooperation Groups or a few people work together to achieve a beneficial goal Competition used along with cooperation

14 Accommodation –Accommodation People give a little/ take a little State of balance between conflict and cooperation Compromise, a form of accommodation

15 Types of Societies Chapter 4 – Section 3

16 –Group People who interact on the basis of shared expectation and possess a common identity –Subsistence Strategies The way a society use technology to provide for the needs of its members

17 Preindustrial Societies Hunting and Gathering Societies –Food production = daily collection of wild plants and hunting of animals

18 Pastoral Societies Rely on domesticated herd animals to meet the food needs –Division of Labor Special economic activities Production encourages trade

19 Horticultural Societies –Agricultural products grown on fields cleared from the forest –The same level of technology than pastoral societies

20 Agricultural Societies Technology advances allow to plant more crops Larger harvests allows? –Barter Exchange of goods or services

21 Industrial Societies –Emphasis shifts from food production to the manufacturing of goods –Urbanization Concentration of the population in cities

22 Postindustrial Societies –Society is involved in providing information or services –Which countries are considered postindustrial?

23 Contrasting Societies –Mechanical Solidarity People share the same values and perform the same task –Organic Solidarity People can no longer provide for all of their needs

24 Ferdinand Tönnies –Gemeinschaft People share a strong sense of group solidarity –Gesellschaft Relationships are impersonal and temporary Traditional values are weak Individual goal is more important than group goal

25 Groups Within Society Chapter 4 – Section 4

26 What Is a Group? –Aggregate People at the same place without organization –Social Category Classifying people according to a shared trade or status

27 Size –Dyad Each member has direct control over the existence of the group –Triad Group develops life of its own –Small Group Every member is able to interact on face-to-face basis

28 Time –Overtime, interaction is not continuous Organization –Formal Group Clearly defined structure, goals, and activities –Informal Group No official structure or rules of conduct

29 Types of Groups Primary Group –Small group, interacting over a long period of time, direct and on personal basis Secondary Group –Interaction is impersonal and temporary

30 Reference Groups –People performs social role and judges own behavior on set standards of certain groups E-communities –Interaction with others through the internet

31 In-Groups –A person belongs and identifies with the group Out-Groups –Person does not belong to or identify with

32 Social Network –Include direct and indirect relationships –No clear boundaries –No common sense of identity

33 Group Functions –Leaders People who influence other peoples attitudes and opinions –Instrumental Leaders Task-oriented –Expressive Leaders Emotion-oriented

34 The Structure of Formal Organizations Chapter 4 – Section 5

35 –Formal Organization Complex secondary groups, formed to achieve specific goal –Bureaucracy Authority structure, operating according to specific rules and procedures –Rationality Subjecting features of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control

36 Weber’s Model of Bureaucracy –Division of labor –Ranking of authority –Employment based on formal qualifications –Rules and Regulations –Specific lines of promotion and advancement

37 Relationships in Formal Organizations –Formal impersonal structures –Possibility of primary relationships –Informal structure more important to members of the organization

38 How Effective Are Bureaucracies? –Bureaucracy creates order and stability –Bureaucracies lose sight of the original goal –Iron law of oligarchy Organization dominated by a small number of people

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