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Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas 1400-1625
US HISTORY Chapter 2 Exploring the Americas

2 Lesson 1 – A Changing World
The Crusades Began in 1095 Series of expeditions by European Christians to Jerusalem to regain control of the Holy City Brought Europeans into contact with Asians  traded for spices, sugar, & silk

3 Lesson 1 – A Changing World
Marco Polo Traveled to China in late 1200s Wrote “Travels”  described his journey Increased interest in Asia for Europeans

4 Lesson 1 – A Changing World
Growth of Trade Arab traders in the Middle East sold Asian goods to European merchants European merchants shipped goods to Mediterranean ports such as Venice and Genoa European merchants wanted to figure out a way to bypass Arab traders in order to increase their profit

5 Lesson 1 – A Changing World
Technology Advancements Printing Press – allows for information (books, maps, etc.) to spread quickly Astrolabe – helped determine latitude Magnetic Compass – helped determine direction Caravel – faster ship with more cargo space, could also go in shallow waters

6 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Portugal Prince Henry set up center for exploration in Portugal in 1420 This “school” brought together astronomers, geographers, mathematicians, sailors, and shipbuilders to share their knowledge Portuguese ships explored the western coast of Africa  traded for gold and ivory...later bought slaves

7 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Portugal 1487 – Bartholomeu Dias sails around southern tip of Africa...King John II names the “Cape of Good Hope” 1497 – Vasco da Gama sails around the Cape of Good Hope, travels up coast of East Africa and sails to India 1500 – Pedro Cabral leaves for India, swings so wide around Africa that he lands in Brazil (claiming the land for Portugal), takes off from Brazil for India

8 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Spain Christopher Columbus Did NOT “discover” America Evidence shows Leif Eriksson and the Vikings were in N. America centuries earlier 1492 – convinces Spain (King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella) to finance his voyage to look for western route to Asia Takes three ships (Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria) and reaches Caribbean in October 1492

9 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Spain Christopher Columbus Returns to Spain with Native American slaves & gets financing for another voyage Returns to Caribbean in 1493 – treats natives VERY poorly (crew stole food & gold, raped women, & made many natives slaves) Made two more voyages (1498 & 1502) sailing along coastline of Central & South America

10 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Feud between Spain & Portugal both countries wanted to protect their claims in the Americas...turned to Pope Alexander VI for help Line of Demarcation – established in 1493, runs from N to S, Spain gets lands to the W, Portugal gets lands to the E Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – Portugal complains about the line...two countries agree to move it W

11 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Other Explorers Amerigo Vespucci - sailed along coast of South America in 1502, concluded that South America was a new continent and not part of Asia, geographers then began to call the land “America” in his honor

12 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Other Explorers Vasco Nunez de Balboa – travels across Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and becomes first European to see the Pacific Ocean from the Americas, claims it and all adjoining lands for Spain

13 Lesson 2 – Early Exploration
Other Explorers Ferdinand Magellan – reached the southernmost tip of South America in 1520, encountered storms, went into Pacific Ocean and gave it its name...means “peaceful”...went on to sail to the Philippines where he was killed...his crew continued on to Spain where they arrived in 1522 becoming the first to circumnavigate the world

14 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Explorers & Conquest Spanish hear stories of gold & riches in the Americas Spanish crown allows conquistadors to explore in search of these riches...1/5 of any gold found was to be paid to the Spanish crown

15 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Hernan Cortes arrives at Tenochtitlan - November 8, 1519 Montezuma (Aztec leader) believes Cortes is Quetzalcoatl (Aztec god returning to take back the throne) Montezuma becomes prisoner of the Spanish Spanish steal millions in gold Cortes leaves, returns 10 months later Aztec surrender on August 13, 1521

16 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Francisco Pizarro arrived in Incan Empire in 1531 captured Incan leader (Atahualpa) Spanish held Atahualpa ransom, forced Incans to fill a room with gold & silver Incans fill the room ($65 million value) Pizarro kills him anyway

17 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Juan Ponce de Leon First Spanish landing in North American mainland (east coast of Florida) in 1513 Searched for gold & mythical “fountain of youth” Named “Florida”...Spanish word means “full of flowers” His journey led to the first settlement in what is now the US – St. Augustine, FL (1565)

18 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Hernando de Soto Led Spanish expedition throughout the American Southeast in search of the “Seven Cities of Cibola” or Seven Cities of Gold First European expedition to reach Mississippi River Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Searched throughout American Southwest for the Seven Cities of Cibola

19 Lesson 3 – Spain in America
Social Classes Peninsulares – born in Spain, but living in the New World Creoles – born in New World to Spanish parents Mestizos – people of mixed Spanish & Native American descent Native Americans African slaves

20 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
Religious Rivalries First Europeans to travel in Americas were Catholic (Spanish & Portuguese) 1517 – Reformation starts…start of Protestantism 1533 – English King Henry VIII leaves Catholic Church Problems arise during reign of Henry’s daughter (Queen Elizabeth I)

21 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada England & Spain close to war due to trade rivalry & religious differences King Philip II (Spain) wanted to replace Queen Elizabeth I (England) with a Catholic Sir Francis Drake – English, attacked Spanish ships & ports, Philip II felt he should be punished, Elizabeth knighted him instead Philip sent the Spanish Armada to conquer England Spanish Armada is defeated (1588) by the English Opens the way for English to colonize North America

22 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
Northwest Passage Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas b/w Spain & Portugal...England, France, & the Netherlands ignored the treaty and made their own claims All of the countries were interested in finding the Northwest Passage  supposed all-water route through the Americas

23 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
Northwest Passage John Cabot – sailed for England in landed in Newfoundland...England used Cabot’s voyage to make land claims in North America...found important fishing area now known as “Grand Banks” Jacques Cartier – French explorer...sailed up the St. Lawrence River...France used Cartier’s voyage to make land claims in Canada Henry Hudson – Dutch explorer...Hudson River & Hudson Bay named after him...mutinous crew set him adrift in Hudson Bay...he was never seen again

24 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
French in North America Mainly concerned with fishing & trapping New France – along St. Lawrence R. in Canada French Explorers Joliet & Marquette – went down Mississippi River by canoe...determined it went south to Gulf of Mexico and not west to Pacific La Salle – traveled the Mississippi River all the way south to Gulf of Mexico, claimed the region for France calling it “Louisiana” in honor of King Louis XIV

25 Lesson 4 – Competing for Colonies
Dutch Settlements Dutch had large fleet of trading ships that sailed all over the world Set up multiple trading posts along east coast of North America New Amsterdam – center of the colony...Gov. Peter Minuit paid about $24 in goods to Manhattoes natives for the island...island is now known as Manhattan (NYC)

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