The ILO Vision on gender equality: ILO considers gender equality as a key element in its vision of Decent Work for All Women and Men for social and institutional change to bring about equity and growth. The main focus or thematic areas of the ILO on gender equality coincide with the organization's four strategic goals, which are to: promote fundamental principles and rights at work; create greater employment and income opportunities for women and men; enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection; and strengthen social dialogue and tripartism.Decent Work for All Women and Menrights employmentsocial protectionsocial dialogue
SOME CONCEPTS Sex and Gender Gender Roles Gender equality Gender equity Gender mainstreaming Gender analysis Practical and strategic needs
Sex and gender SEX: Biological differences that men & women, boys & girls are born with, that are universal GENDER: Social differences and relations between the sexes that are learned, change over time & vary across cultures
Gender roles Roles assigned to men and women in a society as « male » and « female » Caretaker of household and children Breadwinner
Gender equality Equal rights, responsibilities, treatment, and valuation of both sexes, so that women and men, girls and boys can participate in, decide on and benefit from development on an equal footing. Gender Equality: -Same fundamental Human and Workers ’ Rights -Equal Value and Fair Distribution of: *responsibilities and opportunities *workload, decision making and income
Key international Conventions for gender equality Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100),No. 100 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111),No. 111 Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156) andNo. 156 Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183).No. 183
Also known as Gender Justice: fair treatment of both sexes that take into account and address the different needs of the men, women, boys and girls, cultural barriers and the effects of (past) discrimination of the specific group. Gender equity
Also known as Gender Justice: fair treatment of both sexes that take into account and address the different needs of the men, women, boys and girls, cultural barriers and the effects of (past) discrimination of the specific group.
12 Gender mainstreaming: 1997 UN definition The ultimate goal of mainstreaming is to achieve gender equality. Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any area and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as of men an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated. Source: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): Agreed Conclusions E/1997/L.30, p.2), as endorsed by the Beijing Platform of Action, 1995, Fourth World Conference on Women
Gender mainstreaming Evaluation of impact on men and women, Integration of their concerns and situations In all activities, programmes and policies
ILO two pronged approach to gender mainstreaming: Systematic and formal response to specific and often different concerns of both women and men, including women's practical and strategic gender needs. Targeted interventions - based on analysis that takes into account these concerns and needs - aim to enable women and men to participate in, and benefit equally from, development efforts.
Gender analysis Evaluates areas of inequality between men and women: Contributions Needs Access and control over resources Constraints and opportunities
Gender Analysis To diagnose relations, similarities and differences between girls and boys, men and women Identify: division of labour access to and control over resources & benefits Understand needs, constraints & opportunities of girls and boys, men and women
Gender Analysis To diagnose relations, similarities and differences between girls and boys, men and women Identify constraints & opportunities in larger environment Review capacity of organizations & mechanisms to promote equality Draw conclusions and recommendations for change
Practical & Strategic Needs Roles of men and women are different in families and workplaces, therefore, their needs are different. Practical needs = basic needs, survival needs e.g. food, water, shelter, income, clothing and healthcare Strategic needs = equality, empowerment e.g. sharing of family responsibilities & decision making, equal access to education and training
Gender perspectives of the labour market: Why do we need to look at the labour market through a gender lens? What are the main issues for integrating gender in labour market policies Promoting gender sensitive Labour market policies
Why the Gender Lens? Equality To address forms of discrimination in the labour market and entrench the rights to equality of men and women and redress inequality Promotion/creation of decent work for all men and women rights for women and potential benefits for men if it reduces pressure to conform to gendered social norms that constrain men as well as women Efficiency Women and men respond differently to policies and it is more efficient for policy makers to detect and apply Tapping the full potential of women as economic agents Victimization/discrimination blocks/delays goal of social justice and equity
Forms of inequality faced by women Supply Side of the labour market Quality of labour supply and preparation to equal access to the job market: Gender inequality in training and retraining opportunities Gender inequality in access to and control over resources Lack of practical measures and basic support services and infrastructure Recruitment Demand side of the labour market: Gender segregation by Occupation a major labour market rigidity and inequality Barriers to occupational mobility Different values and remuneration continue to be attached to men’s and women’s jobs resulting in wage differentials and discrimination on the basis of sex.
Significant development in the Labour market Economic reform and structural adjustment and globalization: More flexible labour markets depicting rising unemployment and underemployment and decline of public sector employment Deregulation Enterprise level restructuring Increased informalization and casualization of labour markets Labour market fragmentation leading to atypical forms of employment
Significant development in the Labour market Economic reform and structural adjustment and globalization: Implications different for women and for men: “flexibility” associated with female time and contribution to economic efficiency and growth Role of women not rewarded. Women remain invisible in the labour market Low earning in the atypical forms of employment Women more vulnerable and unlikely to be covered by legislation and collective bargaining
Gender sensitive labour market policies Remember that Women are not homogeneous Addressing causes of gender discrimination to create an enabling environment for their participation in the labour market; Distinguish implication for men and women and apply special measures where necessary; Labour market policies to enrich female labourforce supply: Pre- employment, on-the-job and re-training in vocational and technical skills; Support services Enhancing the demand for female labour Self-employment, entrepreneurial skills development and small-enterprise support programmes targeted for women Strengthening the organizational and negotiating capacity of grassroots women Public sector employment and public works projects Improving labour market processes and institutions Gender sensitive labour market information Public employment services Strengthening labour market institutions and tripartite structures
Prerequisite for successful gender equality policy Political/senior level support Institutionalization of gender mainstreaming A network of gender specialists and focal points at Setting measurable targets and indicators Gender audits Gender budgeting