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International dimension of 3Rs acceptance

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Presentation on theme: "International dimension of 3Rs acceptance"— Presentation transcript:

1 International dimension of 3Rs acceptance
…… challenges for industries and regulators EPAA Betty Hakkert (personal view)

2 Content REACH REACH testing strategies Examples Challenges

3 REACH Context 1….. This Regulation should ensure a high level of protection of Human Health (HH) and Environment (ENV) as well as….. …… This regulation should also promote the development of alternative methods for the assessment of hazards of substances 16 …..The Regulation is based on the principle that industry should manufacture, import or use substances or place them on the market with such responsibility and care as may be required to ensure that….HH and ENV are not adversely affected.

4 REACH Context: Information Requirements
Annex VI Guidance on fulfilling requirements of Annexes VII-XI Gather and assessment information Annex VII to X: Information Requirements is tonnage dependent (number substances): ≥ 1 tonne/y: Annex VII in vitro (20,000) ≥ 10 tonnes/y: Annex VIII base set (5,000) ≥ 100 tonnes/y: Annex IX additional testing (2500) ≥ 1000 tonnes/y: Annex X additional testing (2700) Annex XI General rules for adaptation of the standard testing Annex XI(1): Testing does not appear scientifically necessary Annex XI(2): Testing is technically not possible Annex XI(3): Exposure-driven waiving/testing

5 REACH Context Can be used if:
Annex XI (1) testing does not appear scientifically necessary Use of existing information, weight of evidence, (Q)SARs, in vitro methods, grouping/read across Can be used if: Suitable methods are used Results are adequate for the purpose of Classification and Labelling and/or Risk Assessment Adequate and reliable documentation is given

6 REACH Context: Information Requirements
Adequate for Classification and Labelling Important driver under REACH and several other legislations (e.g. consumer products, transport) Adequate for Risk Assessment Information suited to derive a (semi)quantitative dose descriptor Adequate for PBT, vPvB assessment

7 REACH Implementation Projects (RIPs)
RIP 3.3 on information requirements provides guidance for industries how to comply with Annexes VI-XI of the Regulation This guidance was prepared by experts from Industries, Member States and Commission. Joined action!

8 Lessons from RIPs 3.3 (not exhaustive)
Importance of close collaboration between Industries and Member States/Regulators Realisation there are few, if any, alternative methods that could be used as stand alone replacement for C&L, RA and/or PBT assessment Further development should focus on regulatory needs and uses A method stated to be scientifically validated is not necessarily applicable for a given regulatory purpose There is a need for further development and evaluation of integrated testing strategies and refinement of methods (e.g. EU-project OSIRIS)

9 Lessons RIPs 3.3: example Three in vitro methods for embryotoxicity that have been considered scientifically valid(ated)* However, these methods are no replacement of OECD 414 and are (as yet) not suited for (certain) regulatory purposes because: They do (as yet) not provide a dose descriptor suited for RA They do not include a metabolic system The evaluations is based on a limited chemical domain There is a need for further refinement for discrimination between non, weak and strong embryotoxicants Etc For use in testing strategies more experience/guidance is needed By ECVAM advisory committee ESAC

10 Challenges Regulators and Industries
Regulators should be involved throughout the process of method/testing strategy development in order to assure the methods comply with the regulatory needs

11 Anticipated animal use under REACH

12 OECD416 OECD414 OECD421 70% of experimental animals is required for reproductive toxicity testing in REACH Van der Jagt et al., ECB 2004

13 Retrospective analyses of existing data Can hazard assessment be simplified by changing the testing strategy? Impact of the second generation in the 2-generation study (Janer, Hakkert, Slob, Vermiere, Piersma Reprod. Toxicol. 24: (2007)) Comparison of NOELs and critical end points in subchronic versus 2-generation study in the rat (Janer Hakkert, Piersma, Vermiere, Slob, Reprod. Toxicol. 24: (2007))

14 Toxicological tests and reproductive toxicity
Subacute toxicity test Subchronic toxicity test Chronic toxicity test Reproductive/Developmental toxicity screening tests Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity test Rat developmental toxicity test Rabbit developmental toxicity test What is the impact on C&L and on NOAEL of the rat two-generation study when a subchronic study is available ? What is the added value of the 2nd generation

15 Subchronic study: C&L The subchronic study did not always detect toxicity to fertility  the two-generation studies had an impact on C&L

16 Two-generation vs. Subchronic study: NOAEL
Classified for reproductive toxicity (n = 47) Not classified for reproductive toxicity (n = 75) The two generation and the subchronic toxicity tests led to similar overall NOAELs

17 P0 (parental animals) F1 (first generation) F2 (second generation)
What is the impact on C&L and on NOAEL of omitting the second generation in a two-generation reproductive toxicity study ? Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity test P0 (parental animals) F1 (first generation) F2 (second generation)

18 Main findings added value 2nd generation
Impact on Classification and Labelling (n=176) In general no impact on C&L was observed for the second generation Impact on NOAELs (n=176) In general no impact on overall NOAEL Impact leaving out F1 adults (n=176) Not maintaining F1 until adulthood could lead to “missing” of effects relevant for C&L and for NOAEL Note: leaving out 2nd generation saves 1200 animals/study

19 CONCLUSIONS present repro-analyses not exhaustive
Data base analysis provides important input in refinement/revision of test guidelines/strategies Subchronic study is (as yet) insufficient for C&L 2-gen reproduction study may not be needed to define an overall NOAEL Omitting the second generation in a 2-gen-reproduction study may go without consequences for C&L and NOAEL Not maintaining F1 until adulthood may miss effects relevant for C&L and NOAEL The findings support the proposal of an extended 1-generation study (Cooper et al., 2006; Critical Reviews in Toxicology, pg 69-98) It is important that additional (confidential) data of industry are made available to further substantiate these conclusions and increase the chemical domain

20 Further work repro-analyses
These analyses have been brought into the OECD Test Guideline Programme in the project on the extended F1-generation reproduction study (MS, IND, other stakeholders). Importance of mutual acceptance of the revised method because of the high number of animals involved Need for more information to increase data base a.o. to obtain clear alerts when to conduct 2nd generation Work in progress by industries/regulatory bodies on conduct of extended F1-generation study

21 Challenges Regulators and Industries 1
Methods should be developed in order to fulfil the regulatory requirements Regulators/industries should be involved/consulted in all stages of the development of alternative methods/testing strategies (regulatory needs/capacity building) Development of high quality data basses is essential for Refinement in vivo methods (e.g. example repro) Validation/evaluation alternative methods (e.g. in vitro, “omics”, integrated methods) Development of models Application of category approaches/reading across

22 Challenges Regulators and Industries (2)
Challenge to find (acceptable) ways to get/use confidential information from industries to develop/refine methods/testing strategies In view of the reduction of animals use it is important that methods are widely accepted (e.g mutual acceptance of data of OECD TGs) Validation/evaluation process should be Transparent and Review Groups should include experts from various field (incl. regulatory knowledge).


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