# B19-Describe how light is absorbed, reflected, and refracted by different surfaces.

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B19-Describe how light is absorbed, reflected, and refracted by different surfaces.

 Form of energy that travels in waves that the human eye sees as visible light.  Example: White Light (Roy-G-Biv) and Visible Light which reflects off of objects so we can see them. (colors)

 Vibrating electric and magnetic fields that move through space at the speed of light (300,000KM/per sec.)  Example: Light waves from the sun are electrical vibrations that have a magnetic field. They do not need a medium to travel.

 The ability to cause change  Light rays can cause heat that moves molecules (ie. Heat makes ice melt!)  Light gives energy to our plants and helps the process of photosynthesis (we get to breathe in air!!)

 Rhythmic pattern that carries energy  Light waves travel from the sun and reach earth

 Narrow beam of light that travels in a straight line from a light source  Light rays coming from the sun

 Light that bounces back from a smooth, shiny surface  Example: Light hitting a mirror and then bouncing back

 The ability of an object to “bounce off” another object

 Created when light hits a smooth, shiny surface  Example: you can see an image of yourself when light is reflected off of a mirror

 Light that is taken in by an object  The colors of white light that we don’t see in an object get absorbed.

 The bending of light as it moves from one material to another  Explanation: ◦ Light waves travel in straight lines ◦ When light waves move from one kind of material to another, like from air to water, their speed changes ◦ the change in speed causes the light rays to bend (this is the result of a change in direction) ◦. The bending of light is called refraction (ri frak shan)  Example: Pencil in the cup of water!

 The bending of light as it passes through air of different temperatures  Sometimes it looks like there is water on a road when actually its just a mirage or image of a blue sky caused by refracted light

definition ELECTROMAGNETIC Spectrum  The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency.  It is made up of radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and gamma rays.

 Definition: Substances that are used to color materials!  Example: A shirt that has red pigment will reflect red when hit by white light!

 Definition: ◦ Cyan ◦ Yellow ◦ Magenta

 Definition: A new color of pigment is produced as a result of the absorption of colors and the reflection of similar color groups.  Explanation:  Colors combine to form new colors because pigments do not actually absorb every color of light  The colors of pigment that are mixed have certain pigments in common; these colors get reflected!  We actually see the reflected color that both pigments have in common!!  Example: When cyan and yellow pigments are mixed, we see the color green because all the other colors but green get absorbed (subtracted) while the green color gets reflected!!.

 Definition: ◦ Green ◦ Red ◦ Blue

 Definition: The mixing of various colored light making the light more intense and bringing the color of the mixture closer to white light (ROY-G-BIV)  Example: When we mix blue and yellow light beams, the colors get added thus moving the light closer to white. Therefore, the color of light is a soft white light.

 Definition: Creating a new color by a process that adds one set of wavelengths to another set of wavelengths.  Example: When all the colors of white light are added, we see white light!

 When white light hits an object the colors of white light (ROY-G-BIV) get reflected and absorbed!  The certain color of pigment that is in the object gets reflected and the remaining colors of white light get absorbed.  We see the color that gets reflected and the remaining colors that we don’t see get absorbed!!  Ie. Yellow light reflects off of a sweater that has yellow pigment so we see yellow. The other colors of light get absorbed.

 Definition: The colors that combine to make any other color.  Example: Green, Red, and Blue can be used to form other colors!

 Definition: Two primary colors combine in equal amounts to produce a secondary color.  Example: Red and Blue mixed together make the secondary color called purple!

 Definition: Any two colors that combine to form white light.  Example: Yellow and Blue combine to form white light!!

 Definition: A transparent material transmits most of the light that strikes it.  Example: Light going through glass or a clear substance!!

 Definition: A material that scatters light that passes through.  Example: Wax paper! (only some of the light gets through)

 Definition: A material that absorbs or reflects all the light that strikes it!  Examples: ◦ Wood ◦ Metal ◦ Cotton clothing

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