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Plant Structure Chapter 35.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure Chapter 35."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure Chapter 35

2 Angiosperms Monocots Seed one cotyledon (seed leaf)
Leaves parallel veins Roots fibrous Vascular tissue scattered Flower parts 3’s or multiples of 3’s Bulbs, grasses, grains, orchids

3 Angiosperms Dicots (eudicots) Seed with 2 cotyledon (seed leaf)
Leaves with network of veins Taproot Vascular tissue arranged in a ring Flowers in groups of 4 & 5 or multiples Annuals, trees, shrubs, roses, peas

4 Angiosperms


6 Plant cells 1. Parenchyma cells Large vacuoles Thin walled
Make & store organic products Fleshy tissue of most fruit

7 Plant cells 2. Collenchyma cells Support organs
Allows stems to bend & not break

8 Plant cells 3. Sclerenchyma cells Supporting elements of plant
More rigid

9 4.Water-conducting cells
Xylem Move water & minerals Vessel members (elements) Continuous tubes Tracheids Tapered ends Thick walled Wood is secondary xylem

10 Xylem

11 5. Sugar-conducting cells
Phloem Sieve cells Sieve-tube members (elements) Conduct carbohydrates Move away from where formed (source) To where needed or stored (sink)

12 5. Sugar-conducting cells
Companion cells: Next to sieve-tube cells Plasmodesmata: Connection between cells

13 Phloem

14 Tissue types 1. Dermal tissue Epidermis (primary growth)
One cell layer thick Outer protective layer Cuticle wax cover-water loss Periderm (secondary growth) Replaces epidermis in woody plants

15 Dermal tissue Trichomes Shoot epidermis “fuzzy” Minimize evaporation
Plant defense

16 Dermal tissue Root hairs Behind root tips Increase surface area

17 Tissue type 2. Vascular tissue Transport Xylem & phloem
3. Ground tissue Parenchyma cells Storage, photosynthesis, support

18 Tissues

19 Organs Root Stem Leaves

20 Root Anchors the plant Absorbs nutrients Water & ions

21 Roots Tap root One large root with small roots Lateral root
Branched roots Adventitious root Root grows from another part of plant Fibrous root Mat of thin roots

22 Root

23 Root


25 Root

26 Lateral roots

27 Stem Positions & supports leaves Node: Leave attachment Internode:
Area on stem between nodes

28 Stem Terminal bud: Bud at end where apical meristem Axillary bud:
Bud along stem may be a branch

29 Leaf Extension of shoot Photosynthesis Blade (flattened)
Stalk (petiole) mostly eudicots

30 Leaf Stomata: Tiny pores Guard cells: Specialized epidermal cells
Regulate opening Transpiration: Evaporation of water

31 Leaf Surface covered with epidermis Mesophyll: Ground tissue
Between epidermis layers Contains veins (vascular bundles)

32 Leaf Palisade mesophyll: Closest to upper epidermis
Tightly packed cells Chloroplasts Spongy mesophyll: Loosely arranged Contains air spaces

33 Leaf

34 Growth Meristems: Embryonic tissues Similar to stem cells
One cell remains meristematic Give rise to other tissues Apical meristems Cell division Elongation of roots & stems (tips)

35 Meristems


37 Fig Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

38 Growth

39 Secondary growth Secondary tissues: Lateral meristems
Vascular cambium (xylem-wood, phloem) Cork cambium Secondary growth-increases girth

40 Secondary growth

41 Stem Fig Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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