5 RootsRoot- the descending axis of a plant, normally occurs below ground.Root FunctionsAnchorage.Absorption of water, minerals, inorganic ions.Storage.Conduction.Two types of root systemsTaproot- a stout, tapering main root from which smaller lateral roots arise; deep; gymnosperms & dicots.Fibrous- arise from stem similar to lateral roots; shallow; monocots.
6 Root Penetration Root depth and distance depend on soil: MoistureTemperatureCompositionFeeder Roots- those involved in uptake of water and minerals, occur usually in the upper 1 meter of the soil.
7 Rootcap- a thimblelike mass of parenchyma cells that covers the root and secretes mucigel.
8 The epidermis in young roots absorbs water and minerals. Root Hairs- tubular extensions of epidermis that facilitate absorption.
9 Primary Development of the Root Tip Region of cell division~1 mm in length.Apical meristem.Region of cell elongation~2 mm in length.Cells elongate, functional xylem starts to develop and phloem is mature.Region of maturation~2 mm-?? mm in length.Root hairs are produced, functional xylem and phloem are present.
12 Eudicot versus Monocot Roots EudicotsVascular cylinder solid.Cortical cells sometimes retained for life, but some shed due to secondary growth.MonocotsVascular cylinder in ring with pith.Cortical cells retained for life, because they lack secondary growth.
13 Cortex and Vascular Cylinder Cortex- ground tissue (cells between the vascular cylinder and the epidermis) occupies the greatest area of the root.Vascular cylinder- xylem, phloem, and pericycle.Pericycle- 1 or more layers of nonvascular cells surrounding the vascular tissue of the root.Intercellular spaces- empty spaces among cortical cells; essential for aeration of the root cells.Epidermis- the outermost layer of cells (the root).Exodermis- the outermost layer of the cortex, 1 or more cell layers in depth; casparian strip in walls.Endodermis- the innermost layer of the cortex, lacks intercellular spaces; casparian strip in walls.
14 Casparian StripCasparian Strip- a bandlike region of the primary cell wall containing suberin and lignin. Impermeable to water and ions, prevents water loss and attack by microorganisms.
22 Effects of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Root Secondary Growth in roots consists of:1) Secondary vascular tissues (secondary xylem and phloem) from vascular cambium.2) Periderm, mostly cork tissue from cork cambium.