Presentation on theme: "Alcohol is a drug that depresses the brain and nervous system. About 20% of the alcohol a person drinks is absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls."— Presentation transcript:
Alcohol is a drug that depresses the brain and nervous system. About 20% of the alcohol a person drinks is absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach. A majority of the rest is absorbed through the walls of the intestine. After it is absorbed, it moves quickly into the bloodstream. Remaining alcohol is excreted through urine, perspiration or breath.
Most alcohol is changed to harmless waste by the liver. The liver can process about one drink per hour. If a person has more than one drink, the excess alcohol builds up in the body. This excess alcohol goes into the body tissues before being excreted. The effects of alcohol increase as the concentration of alcohol in the blood increases. The amount of alcohol in a person’s blood is the Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). The higher the BAC, the greater the effects of alcohol on the body.
» An alcoholic beverage that contains ½ ounce of alcohol is considered one drink. » ½ ounce is equal to one beer, 4 to 5 oz. of wine, or one mixed drink. » Drinking more than this amount will cause the BAC to rise. Getting “Drunk” » Alcohol is a toxin (poison). If too large an amount is consumed, the body’s natural reaction is to reject it, causing a person to vomit. » The body will work to break down and excrete the alcohol in the body as quickly as possible. » Because this process takes time, people may still feel the effects the next day. » There is no way to speed up this process – drinking coffee, taking a cold shower, etc. will not break down the alcohol in the body.
Amount of Alcohol consumed Speed at which alcohol is consumed Body weight Percentage of Body Fat (more body fat = higher BAC) Gender Feelings (stress, anger, fear speed up the time alcohol is absorbed) Amount of Food eaten Presence of other drugs in the bloodstream Age Drinking carbonated beverages
0.02 — 0.03 BAC: No loss of coordination, slight euphoria and loss of shyness. Depressant effects are not apparent. Mildly relaxed and maybe a little lightheaded. 0.04 — 0.06 BAC: Feeling of well-being, relaxation, lower inhibitions, sensation of warmth. Euphoria. Some minor impairment of reasoning and memory, lowering of caution. Your behavior may become exaggerated and emotions intensified (Good emotions are better, bad emotions are worse) 0.07 — 0.09 BAC: Slight impairment of balance, speech, vision, reaction time, and hearing. Euphoria. Judgment and self-control are reduced, and caution, reason and memory are impaired (in some* states.08 is legally impaired and it is illegal to drive at this level). You will probably believe that you are functioning better than you really are. ( * —As of July, 2004 ALL states had passed.08 BAC Per Se Laws. The final one takes effect in August of 2005.) 0.10 — 0.125 BAC: impairment of motor coordination and loss of good judgment. Speech may be slurred; balance, vision, reaction time and hearing will be impaired. Euphoria. It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle at this level of intoxication in all states. 0.13 — 0.15 BAC: Gross motor impairment and lack of physical control. Blurred vision and major loss of balance. Euphoria is reduced and dysphoria* is beginning to appear. Judgment and perception are severely impaired. ( * —Dysphoria: An emotional state of anxiety, depression, or unease.)
0.16 — 0.19 BAC: Dysphoria predominates, nausea may appear. The drinker has the appearance of a "sloppy drunk." 0.20 BAC: Feeling dazed/confused or otherwise disoriented. May need help to stand/walk. If you injure yourself you may not feel the pain. Some people have nausea and vomiting at this level. The gag reflex is impaired and you can choke if you do vomit. Blackouts are likely at this level so you may not remember what has happened. 0.25 BAC: All mental, physical and sensory functions are severely impaired. Increased risk of asphyxiation from choking on vomit and of seriously injuring yourself by falls or other accidents. 0.30 BAC: STUPOR. You have little comprehension of where you are. You may pass out suddenly and be difficult to awaken. 0.35 BAC: Coma is possible. This is the level of surgical anesthesia. 0.40 BAC and up: Onset of coma, and possible death due to respiratory arrest.
Alcohol is readily available to youth Being drunk is an expectation in most adolescent drinking situations Peer group influence is strongly evident Young drinkers tend to obtain alcohol from their parents Young drinkers tend to consume the alcohol at home Students who drink alcohol regularly are more likely to have someone close to them who also drinks alcohol Students tend to regard drinking as a legitimate pastime; they tend to regard drinking as an essential aspect of leisure and entertainment.
Students lack knowledge about alcohol Students do not know how to monitor their intake to prevent intoxication Students lack knowledge of the properties and effects of alcohol. Students lack knowledge as to how alcohol is metabolized Alcohol is often readily available at most social functions
Prevalence of Underage Alcohol Use: ˃Prevalence of Drinking: 2 out of 5 15-year-olds report that they have had at least 1 drink in their lives. 15 In 2012, about 9.3 million people ages 12–20 (24.3 percent of this age group) reported drinking alcohol in the past month (24.7 percent of males and 24 percent of females). 16 ˃Prevalence of Binge Drinking: Approximately 5.9 million people (about 15 percent) ages 12–20 were binge drinkers (16.5 percent of males and 14 percent of females). 16 ˃Prevalence of Heavy Drinking: Approximately 1.7 million people (about 4.3 percent) ages 12–20 were heavy drinkers (5.2 percent of males and 3.4 percent of females). 16 » Consequences of Underage Alcohol Use: ˃Research indicates that alcohol use during the teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. In addition, underage drinking contributes to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths. 17
» Prevalence of Alcohol Use: ˃Prevalence of Drinking: In 2012, 60.3 percent of college students ages 18–22 drank alcohol in the past month compared with 51.9 percent of same-age peers not in college. 18 ˃Prevalence of Binge Drinking: 40.1 percent of college students ages 18–22 engaged in binge drinking (5 or more drinks on an occasion) in the past month compared with 35 percent of same-age peers not in college. 19 ˃Prevalence of Heavy Drinking: 14.4 percent of college students ages 18–22 engaged in heavy drinking (5 or more drinks on an occasion on 5 or more occasions per month) in the past month compared with 10.7 percent of same-age peers not in college. 20
» Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: ˃1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 21 ˃696,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking. 21 ˃97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 21 ˃Roughly 20 percent of college students meet the criteria for an AUD. 22 ˃About 1 in 4 college students report academic consequences from drinking, including missing class, falling behind in class, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall. 23