Presentation on theme: "Drug Courts: Some Answers to Our Burning Questions NADCP May 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Drug Courts: Some Answers to Our Burning Questions NADCP May 2008
Drug Courts: Some Answers to Our Burning Questions NADCP May 2008 How Drug Court Practices Impact Recidivism and Costs Shannon Carey, Ph.D. Mike Finigan, Ph.D. Juliette Mackin, Ph.D. 4380 SW Macadam Ave., Ste. 530 Portland, OR 97239 503.243.2436 May 29, 2008
Do drug court participants really get re- arrested less often? How long does the “drug court effect” on recidivism last? Are drug courts cost effective (cost- beneficial)? The Burning Questions
What drug court practices result in lower recidivism and greater cost savings? Does it matter how long the judge stays on the drug court bench? Is it important for the treatment provider to attend drug court sessions? What is the optimum number of drug tests?
In California, Guam, Indiana, Michigan, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Nevada Oregon and Vermont In the past 5 years NPC has completed over 50 drug court evaluations and research studies Adult, Juvenile and Family Treatment (Dependency) Drug Courts The Research
The Impact of a Mature Drug Court Over 10 Years of Operation: Recidivism and Costs Multnomah County Drug Court The STOP Court was implemented in 1990 All offenders who were eligible from 1991-2001 (11,000) Drug Court N = 6,500; Comparison N = 4,500 Up to 14 years of recidivism (re-arrests) 5 different judges
Exploring the Key Components of Drug Courts: A Comparative Study of 18 Adult Drug Court Practices, Outcomes and Costs 18 Adult Drug Courts California, Maryland, Michigan, Oregon and Guam Process, Outcome and Cost Studies 10 Key Components used as framework Practices compared across drug courts Examined practices in relation to outcomes (Graduation rate, investment and outcome costs)
Drug Courts and State Mandated Drug Treatment Programs Proposition 36 – Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000 (SACPA) Built on previous study in California Drug Court before SACPA (1998-1999) Drug Court and SACPA participants 2002-2003 Collected data on practices, recidivism and costs Compared drug courts pre and post-SACPA Compared drug courts and SACPA
Do drug court participants really get re-arrested less often than offenders who don’t go through drug court? The Burning Questions Recidivism If so, how long does the effect last? Is it the same for all drug courts?
In the 18-site study, 16 of the 18 sites had reduced recidivism for drug court participants Of all the DC’s NPC has evaluated (~50), 4 have not resulted in lower recidivism for participants Recidivism
Drug Court Participants had lower recidivism rates After 2 years: 17% Graduates 29% All Participants 41% Comparison Group 9 California Adult Drug Courts
Drug Court Participants had lower recidivism rates After 2 years: 22% Graduates 38% All Participants 50% Comparison Group 18 drug courts in 4 states (+ 1 territory)
Year 1 N = 10,907; Year 14 N = 317 Significant difference between DC and Comparison every year up to 14 years (Adjusted for differences in demographics and criminal history) Recidivism after 14 Years Percentage reduction in re-arrests
How much does drug court cost? Are drug courts cost- effective? (Do they save taxpayer money?) Costs and Benefits The Burning Questions Which agencies invest the most in drug court (and which invest the least)? Do any agencies save money due to drug court?
* Difference is significant: p<.01 Note: Drug Court cost less than traditional court processing Investment Cost (per Participant) Transactions Investment cost Drug Court (n = 6,502) Investment cost BAU (n = 4,600) Cost Difference (benefit) Arrest (1)$203 $0 Booking (1)$299 $0 Court time$768$714($54) Treatment*$2,001$2,746$745 Jail time*$1,017$1,243$226 Probation time*$880$1,355$475 Total cost$5,168$6,560 $1,392
Outcomes showed a benefit of $6,744 per drug court participant CJ Recidivism Costs per Participant Outcome transactions Drug Court outcome costs BAU outcome costs Difference (Benefit) Savings over 10 years (n = 6,502) Arrests* $852$1,197$345$2,243,398 Bookings* $598$868$269$1,750,566 Court time* $569$802$232$1,510,545 Jail time* $5,198$8,474$3,277$21,305,168 Treatment $1,392$1,779$387$2,514,974 Probation* $2,185$2,730$545$3,544,630 Prison* $5,402$7,091$1,688$10,977,002 Total outcome costs $16,197$22,941 $6,744$43,846,283
Costs and Benefits Average investment across 9 drug courts in California
Costs and Benefits Net savings across 9 drug courts in California
Costs and Benefits Drug Court #1 Drug Court #2 Drug Court #3 Drug Court #4 Drug Court #5 Cost savings per drug court participant $1,570$314$4,250$4,133$7,040 Total cost savings for all participants since program implementation $318,710$247,746$2,962,250$1,921,845$1,408,840 Total savings to local agencies and state (over 2 years) = $7,183,088 Indiana
Team Involvement The Burning Questions Is it important for the attorneys to attend team meetings (“staffings”)?
Courts That Required a Treatment Representative at Drug Court Sessions Had 9 Times Greater Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
May 2008 NADCP22 Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Drug Courts Where the Public Defender was Expected to Attend All Drug Court Team Meetings Had 8 Times Greater Savings
May, 2008 NADCP23 Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Drug Courts Where the Prosecutor was Expected to Attend Drug Court Team Meetings Had more than 2 Times Greater Savings
Is it better to have a single treatment agency or to have multiple treatment options? Treatment The Burning Questions Is it better to have a required number of treatment sessions or to have treatment individualized?
Courts That Used a Single Treatment Agency had 10 Times Greater Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Programs That Had Requirements for Frequency of Treatment Sessions Had Lower Investment Costs Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Programs That Had Requirements for Frequency of Treatment Sessions Had Greater Cost Savings Note: Difference for group is significant at p<.05
How important is jail as a sanction? Jail The Burning Questions
Drug court with same judge and same team had better outcomes for participants when the option of jail as a sanction was available Participants with the Possibility of Jail as a Sanction had Lower Recidivism
Is it more effective if rewards come from the judge? How long should the judge stay on the drug court bench? Is longevity better or is it better to rotate regularly? The Judge The Burning Questions How often should participants appear before the judge?
Drug Courts that Required a Frequency of Court Sessions of Once Every 2 Weeks or Less in the First Phase had 2 times Greater Cost Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Drug Courts That Have the Judge be the Sole Provider of Rewards Had 2 Times Greater Cost Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Different judges had different impact on recidivism Judges did better their second time (or second year) The Longer the Judge Spends on the Drug Court Bench, the Better the Client Outcomes
Should there be a required length of time participants must remain clean before graduation? If so, how long should it be? Drug Testing The Burning Questions How frequently should participants be tested? How quickly should results be available to the team?
Courts That Performed Drug Testing 2 or More Times per Week in the First Phase Had Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
May 2008 NADCP36 Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Courts that Received Drug Test Results Within 48 Hours of Sample Collection Had 3 Times Greater Savings
May 2008 NADCP37 Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Drug Courts That Required Greater Than 90 Days Clean Had Larger Cost Savings
How important is formal training for team members? Who should be trained? Training The Burning Questions When should team members get trained?
Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Drug Courts That Provided Formal Training for All Team Members Had 5 Times Greater Savings
Note: Difference is significant at p<.05 Drug Courts That Had Training Prior to Implementation Had 15 Times Greater Cost Savings
Does it matter whether data are kept in paper files or in a database? Monitoring and Evaluation The Burning Questions Does keeping program stats make a difference? Do you really need an evaluation? What do you get out of it?
Courts that Continued to Use Paper Files for Some Data (Rather Than Electronic Databases) had Less Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Courts That Used Evaluation Feedback to Make Modifications to the Drug Court Program Had 4 Times Greater Cost Savings Note: Difference is significant at p<.05
Summary : Practices that relate to better outcomes (lower costs, lower recidivism, greater savings): See Handout
Contact Information Mike Finigan, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org Juliette Mackin, Ph.D. email@example.com Shannon Carey, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org To learn more about NPC or more about drug court evaluations including cost-benefit evaluations see: www.npcresearch.com 46
Acknowledgements Thank you to the judges and staff at numerous drug courts who welcomed us to their program, answered our un-ending questions and helped us find and collect mounds of data!