Presentation on theme: "Russia 1848-1914 The Bear. Alexander II Alexander II (1855-1881) Perhaps the most liberal ruler prior to 20 th century Russian conditions –90 % Russians."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander II (1855-1881) Perhaps the most liberal ruler prior to 20 th century Russian conditions –90 % Russians lived on farms –Serfdom still a problem Uprisings Poor production –Serfs bought/sold –Serve military 25 yr terms I.
Emancipation Act (Edict) 1861 –Alexander II abolished Serfdom –Most Russians unaffected Lived in Mirs (highly regulated communes) Collective ownership Zemstvos established in 1864 –Local assemblies –Step toward political participation –Lords, however, controlled Zemstvos
Judicial system improved Censorship relaxed (not removed) Liberal education programs Put on Gold Standard Growth of Industry helped spread popularity of Marxism!
Railroads and Industry –1860-1880 RR built: 1,250 miles to 15,500 miles Domestic manufacturing –Suburbs grew around Moscow and St Petersburg –Modern factory workers –Strengthen military: Expansion South & East
Critics of Alexander II’s reign Alexander became increasingly conservative (realism replaced romanticism) Radical populist movement advocated utopian agrarian society Intelligentsia and Nihilism grew Alexander II assassinated in 1881
Intelligentsia and Nihilism Intelligentsia –Hostile group of intellectuals –Believed they should take over Russia Nihilism –Intellectual philosophy Science only is real No spiritual ‘meaning’ to life Said society should be torn down and rebuild
Alexander III (1881-1894) Most reactionary czar of 19 th century Slogan: –Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification” Encouraged anti-Semitism –Pogroms initiated: resulted in persecution of Jews –Zionism was Jewish reaction (Herzel led: Jewish home in Holy Land II.
Count Witte oversaw Industrialization Brought West Tech & built factories Rise in Russian middle class (small #’s) More railroads (35,000 miles by 1900) –Trans-Siberian Railway biggest rail line Moscow to Vladivostok (5,000 miles) By 1900 became 4 th in steel industry (US, Germany, Britain, Russia) ½ World’s petroleum supply
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) –Sphere of influence in Manchuria –Sought Korea –Japan moved to stop Russia expansionism –Japanese defeated Russians Very Humiliating! Russia turned away from Asia Nicholas II (1894-1917) III.
Revolution of 1905 –Poor economy –Russo-Jap war hurt –“Bloody Sunday” Jan 1905 200,000 worker/peasants march to Winter Palace Czar not in town Fires shot; many killed –General Strike and troop mutinies –Czar forced to make concessions
Duma created –Assembly serving as advisory board to Czar –Freedom of speech, assembly, and press –Czar could veto Revolutionaries politically divided –Unable to agree Propertied classes benefit at expense of workers
Brief mild economic recovery 1907- 1914 Peter Stolypin make reforms –Agrarian reforms –Broke down collective village ownership –Encouraged enterprising peasants Post 1911, Nicholas II’s court dominated by Gregorii Rasputin –Caused doubt about Czar’s ability to rule