Presentation on theme: "Elements and Principles of Graphic Design Communications Technology 11."— Presentation transcript:
Elements and Principles of Graphic Design Communications Technology 11
Line Lines are another design element that can be used to show direction— where you want the eye to go—and movement. Vertical lines give elegance and elongation to the page, while horizontal lines create a more relaxed feel; curved lines suggest an organic theme. Repetition of lines, or other elements, can be used to also create patterns.
Shape A shape is exactly what it sounds like: circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles are all design building blocks. Repeating shapes or grouping them in an organized method works to create patterns, too.
Form Form is another design element that has to do with the appearance of depth. Form gives a three-dimensional perspective—sometimes through drop shadows and tone—while physically occupying space or giving the illusion of occupied space in a flat, two-dimensional surface. Form is the shape of text, images, and white space—also called void—on a page. By using graphic elements or white space the designer can lead a viewer around a page. Because we are so accustomed to getting information quickly, form can help a viewer see pertinent elements.
Space The Webster-Merriam dictionary defines “space” as “a boundless three- dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction.” In the context of document design (hard copy, electronic file, web based, video), space is an area activated by visual elements. A visual element such as a shape or a line can be considered space. Positive Space Positive space refers to the shapes of objects. It usually refers to anything that is considered the main focus of the page. Anything else in the design is considered negative space or white space. Positive space can be perceived as two- dimensional or three-dimensional.
continued Two dimensional images Two-dimensional images are perceived as flat, without depth or volume. In graphic design, this is often achieved by placing images next to one another or making all images one size. Three dimensional images Three-dimensional images can be perceived as having depth or volume. In graphic design, this is often achieved by over lapping images of various sizes or using other elements in combination such as lines, proportion, grounding, color, and orientation to achieve a three-dimensional effect. White space
continued White space is just as important as objects on a page. Margins are white space (or negative space) that makes text more readable. White space is used to organize text, as in an outline, for example. The amount of space before an item in an outline designates its position in the hierarchy of information. Good use of leading, or the space between lines, promotes readability, especially on a computer screen. White space directs the eye to objects on the page. It is hard to distinguish objects on a crowded page. The more space around an object, the easier it is to notice an object. The web page below is quite busy, but it is rescued from being cluttered because enough white space is used to separate the various objects
Texture Texture is defined as the surface characteristics of a material that can be experienced through the sense of touch or the illusion of touch.
Color Any kind of color adds impact and interest to objects and design. Brighter colors make elements of a design seem larger, while cooler colors make them seem smaller. While there are thousands of shades of color, designers approach them in three major categories: Primary colors—red, yellow, and blue Secondary colors—green, purple, and orange Tertiary colors—all the colors between the secondary colors on the color wheel
Rhythm Rhythm is the repetition or alternation of elements, often with defined intervals between them. Rhythm can create a sense of movement, and can establish pattern and texture. There are many different kinds of rhythm, often defined by the feeling something evokes when viewed. Regular: A regular rhythm occurs when the intervals between the elements, and often the elements themselves, are similar in size or length Flowing: A flowing rhythm gives a sense of movement, and is often more organic in nature Progressive: A progressive rhythm shows a sequence of forms through a progression of steps
Balance Elements in a design can either be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Large or small, all work in this principle. For example, when using a large object and small object together on the same page, the proximity to one another can be well-balanced or poorly balanced. By placing them close together, the balance is poor. If you allow more space between the objects the balance is more even. Asymmetrical elements are often used to create visual excitement, by calling attention to certain elements. Designs that are asymmetrical are generally divided into thirds, rather than halves. When using tone to create asymmetrical balance, use the rule of thirds for your composition. By that we mean, the tone or pattern should be anywhere from ⅓ to ⅔ of the design—one third of the design might be colored darkly where the other third would be lightly colored.
Variety Variety is a principle of design that refers to a way of combining visual elements to achieve intricate and complex relationships. It is a technique used by artists who wish to increase the visual interest of their work. Artwork that makes use of many different hues, values, lines, textures, and shapes reflects variety. Keeping the same size while changing the color can also show variety. Although varying the components of a design can create visual interest and avoid monotony, design elements must also convey a sense of cohesion. It is important to maintain cohesion or the design will look like a mess of mismatched images thrown together. Still, visual design without any variation is boring.
Emphasis Something that is singled out or made more prominent has emphasis. An element of a design that dominates or becomes the center of interest has emphasis. Ex/ Line In a design composed of horizontal lines, the vertical line becomes the focal point. Shape A square stands out from a group of circles or organic shapes.
Harmony Harmony in design means all parts of the image relate to and complement each other. Harmony pulls the pieces of a visual image together. All design images must somehow flow together when the focus is on harmony.
Proportion Proportion is the relationship of two or more elements in a design and how they compare with one another. Proportion is said to be harmonious when a correct or desirable relationship exists between the elements with respect to size, color, quantity, degree, or setting. Good proportion adds harmony, symmetry, or balance among the parts of a design.