Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-2 Initial Studies Hermann Ebbinghaus conducted the pioneering research on memory in the late 1800s. Ebbinghaus devised nonsense syllables, which he believed had no meaning attached to them, to study how associations between stimuli are formed.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-3 Initial Studies Ebbinghaus devised nonsense syllables, which he believed had no meaning attached to them, to study how associations between stimuli are formed.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-4 Initial Studies Through the use of serial learning, Ebbinghaus determined that much of what we learn is forgotten very shortly after a learning session. Other methods include paired-associate learning and free recall.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-5 Initial Studies These basic methods were developed and expanded by incorporating additional tasks, such as the recognition test and the relearning test The savings score is produced by the relearning method.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-6 Traditional Models of Memory Some investigators have drawn a parallel between the computer and human memory.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-7 Traditional Models of Memory Computers and human memory have (a) an input or encoding stage, (b) a storage process, and (c) a retrieval process.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-8 Traditional Models of Memory The stages-of-memory model of memory proposes that memories can be processed in different ways. There are three types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-9 Traditional Models of Memory Sensory memory is a very brief (lasting one-half to 1 second) memory for a large array of stimuli. Short-term memory (STM) is more limited in capacity than sensory memory but lasts longer (10 to 20 seconds). Working memory is the second stage of short- term memory, during which attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-10 Traditional Models of Memory With practice or rehearsal, memories may persist even longer and ultimately be transferred to more permanent storage in long-term memory (LTM).
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-11 Traditional Models of Memory Memories may not be retrievable from LTM because they have faded or because of interference by other memories. Proactive Interference occurs when old material interferes with the retrieval of material learned more recently. Retroactive interference occurs when recently learned material interferes with the retrieval of material learned earlier.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-12 Traditional Models of Memory
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-13 Other Approaches Craik and Lockhart proposed only one type of memory. The level of processing may determine the permanence of the storage of this memory.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-14 Other Approaches Other researchers have proposed that there is more than one type of long-term memory. Four types have been identified: procedural, semantic, episodic, and priming or implicit memory. Each serves to store a different kind of information.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-15 Other Approaches The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon has been used to study the network of semantic memories The study of flashbulb memories has provided information about episodic memory.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-16 Other Approaches Research on the retrieval of memories has shown that we scan both STM and LTM to locate an item we wish to recall.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-17 Other Approaches Encoding specificity has a great deal to do with the ease with which a memory is retrieved. If the cues that were present when a memory was encoded or stored are not present during retrieval, it is difficult to retrieve that memory.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-18 Other Approaches Encoding specificity appears to be at work in state dependent learning, which states that we recall information
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-19 Other Approaches It has been suggested that memories of childhood sexual abuse may be repressed and recalled during adulthood. Many of these repressed memories appear to have been induced during therapy sessions by suggestions made by the therapist.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-20 Other Approaches The number of sessions, distribution of practice, meaningfulness of items, similarity of items, and serial position of items influence human learning.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-21 Other Approaches Our memory can be improved by using a mnemonic device such as imagery. The method of loci and the peg-word technique are two popular mnemonic devices.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-22 Other Approaches Grouping and coding are two other techniques that can be used as memory aids. Acronyms, words formed by the first letter(s) of the items to be remembered, and acrostics, a verse or saying in which the first letter(s) of each word stands for a bit of information, are two popular forms of coding.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-23 The Physiological Basis of Learning and Memory Physical trauma may result in a loss of memory known as amnesia. Anterograde amnesia occurs when new information cannot be stored, although old memories remain intact. Anterograde amnesia can result from damage to the hippocampus.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall7-24 The Physiological Basis of Learning and Memory Retrograde amnesia occurs when memories for events that happened before the traumatic event are lost. Retrograde amnesia may occur when memories are not allowed to consolidate or set.