Focusing elements Focusing elements for the speaker (me, me, me) General purpose Thesis statement
The general purpose To inform To persuade To mark an occasion (celebrate, entertain, inspire, etc.)
The thesis statement Clearly expresses the central idea of your speech. i.e., What is the speech about? An expository (explanatory) statement explains something to the audience. An argumentative statement makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.
Good reading on thesis statements http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/01/
Focusing tool Outlining Identifying claims and supporting material Choosing a pattern of organization
When outlining, consider The Principles of Good Form: Unity- this is exhibited when the presentation contains only those points that are implied by the purpose and the thesis statement. Coherence- the clarity and logical consistency Coordination Subordination Balance- appropriate emphasis or weight on each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme.
Transitions Words, phrases or sentences that tie the speech ideas together and enable the speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next. Examples: To show comparison: similarly, in the same way, likewise, just as To contrast ideas: on the other hand, and yet, at the same time To illustrate sequence of time or events First, second, etc. before, after, later, earlier To indicate explanation: for example, to illustrate, in other words To emphasize significance: most important, above all, remember To summarize: as we have seen, altogether, in summary, finally
Reading on transitions http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/574/01/
Transition Checklist Did you include enough transitions to adequately guide your listeners through your speech? Do you use appropriate transitions when making comparisons, showing cause and effect, illustrating a sequence in time, contrasting ideas, summarizing information, and so forth? Do you include full-sentence transitions that alert listeners to shifts from one main point to the next? Do you use transitions to alert listeners to the conclusion of your speech?
Patterns of organization Chronologically Organize the points according to their occurrence in time relative to one another A historic event Spatial pattern Use when your purpose is to describe or explain the physical arrangements of a place, scene or an object The tour of a facility
Causal (Cause-Effect) pattern When you need to relate a cause to its effects Why students drop out Problem-Solution Pattern Organizes main points both to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution Teen pregnancy
Narrative pattern Storytelling; a story or a series of short stories My grandmother... Circular pattern Develops one idea, which leads to the next, which leads to the next... Good for demonstrating a particular form of reasoning
Reading on patterns http://www.publicspeakingguidebook.com/the_abcs_of_publi c_speaking_p10.htm http://www.publicspeakingguidebook.com/the_abcs_of_publi c_speaking_p10.htm
Focusing elements for the audience Thesis statement Preview statement Transitions/signposts
Focusing tools Language Voice Body movement Presentation aids
Discussion: how do I use my research to develop my outline? FAQ How many main points should I use? Rough draft outlines are due Monday, September 30. Yes, it has to be properly formatted and typed!
Source Mikesell, R. (2013). Focusing Elements. O’Hair, D., Stewart, R. and Rubenstein, H. (2010). A speaker’s Guidebook, Text and Reference. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.