Presentation on theme: "Just Do It! In a one minute essay explain the effect the idea of Manifest Destiny had on the Native American groups living in the United States. Paragraph."— Presentation transcript:
Just Do It! In a one minute essay explain the effect the idea of Manifest Destiny had on the Native American groups living in the United States. Paragraph form!
Balancing Nationalism & Sectionalism Session 3: Expansion & The Jacksonian Era
Objectives Describe the effects of the Industrial Revolution Explain how two different economic systems developed in the North and South Summarize the American System, a plan devised to unite the country Discuss how the federal government asserted its jurisdiction over state governments Explain how foreign affairs were guided by national self- interest Summarize the issues that divided the country as the US expanded its borders
7.1 Regional Economies Create Differences Main Idea The North and South developed different economic systems that led to political differences between the regions, or sections. The North developed a largely commercial and industrial economy, while the South depended on a slave-based agricultural economic system.
The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution – changes in economy and social structure that resulted from machines replacing hand tools and large-scale factory production developed Industrial Revolution New England invested in industry more than any other region in the U.S. Lowell, Massachusetts – site of the first large-scale textile factories Employed mostly young, unmarried women
Industrial Revolution Eli Whitney – inventor who dramatically impacted the development of the U.S. economy Interchangeable Parts – involved the use of gun parts that were exactly alike SIG – Led to development of factories as the new centers of industry Led to mass production: production of goods in large quantities Cotton Gin – machine that separated seeds from raw cotton SIG – made the growing of cotton much more profitable, led to an expansion of slavery
Economy of the North Manufacturing in factories, primarily in the East Agriculture – especially in the Old Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin) Mostly self-sufficient farmers – poured into the Northwest from coastal states Major agricultural products – corn, wheat, cattle No slave labor
Economy of the South Agriculture – “Cotton is King” Cotton – cotton gin made it easier to grow and easy to process = more profits Demand for cotton in Great Britain and New England’s textile mills Plantations expanded into the lower/deep South Deep South = South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and eventually Texas Slavery expanded as cotton production expanded
Henry Clay’s American System American System - Henry Clay (Kentucky) created a plan to unify the nation Internal Improvements– roads, canals, eventually railroads Internal Improvements National Road – federal highway started in 1811 that eventually connected Maryland to Illinois Erie Canal – 363 miles from Albany, NY on the Hudson River to Buffalo, NY on Lake Erie SIG – connected Great Lakes region of the Northwest to the Atlantic Ocean and made NYC the most important port city in the US
Henry Clay’s American System Protective Tariff – tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturing Tariff of 1816– first tariff passed by Congress and signed by President Madison Money collected from protective tariff would be used to fund internal improvement projects Northern support, Southern opposition = ______________ North – wanted to protect northern manufactured goods from foreign competition South – opposed to price of imported goods becoming more expensive due to tariffs Henry Clay
Henry Clay’s American System Second Bank of the United States (2 nd BUS) Would issue national currency Would hold all taxes collected by the federal government Chartered for 20 years in 1816
7.2 Nationalism at Center Stage Main Idea Nationalism exerted a strong influence in the Supreme Court and in foreign affairs, but the expansion west revealed both nationalism and sectionalism, which required compromise.
Ogden v. Gibbons (1824) Background: Ogden had a monopoly for steamboat service between New York and New Jersey. Gibbons started a competing service and was sued by Ogden John Marshall ruled that Ogden’s monopoly was illegal, as interstate commerce could only be regulated by the federal government SIG – Congress had the power to regulate all interstate commerce
Maryland v. McCulloch (1819) Background: Maryland had taxed a local branch of the national bank John Marshall ruled that a state cannot tax a federal government institution “The power to tax, is the power to destroy.” SIG – the national bank was constitutional according to the implied powers of the Constitution the federal government’s control over economic issues was strengthened by weakening state powers
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Background: New Hampshire wanted to alter the charter of Dartmouth to make it a state school John Marshall ruled that a charter was a contract and the Constitution did not allow states to interfere with contracts SIG – weakened the power of state governments
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy John Quincy Adams – Secretary of State under President James Monroe Adams Onis Treaty (1819) – U.S. acquired Florida from Spain John Quincy Adams
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) The Monroe Doctrine (1823) - President Monroe warned European powers not to interfere with affairs of the Western Hemisphere No new colonies in the Americas for European powers United States would not interfere in internal European affairs Western Hemisphere nations (with republics) were different from European nations (with monarchies) in terms of government U.S. would view any attempt by European powers to impose their control over any Western Hemisphere independent state as a threat to peace and safety
Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise (1820) Henry Clay’s attempt to solve the Missouri Crisis Background: In 1819, Missouri applied for admission to the U.S. as a __________ state There were 11 free states and 11 slave states which had created a sectional balance between North and South in the U.S. Senate where each state had two Senators
The Missouri Compromise Maine was admitted to the United States as a free state Missouri was admitted to the United States as a slave state The 36 30’ latitude line divided the rest of the Louisiana Territory North of the line (except Missouri itself) = slavery was illegal South of the line = slavery was legal
Missouri Compromise SIG – Balance in the Senate between North and South was preserved Temporarily settled the issue of the expansion of slavery Henry Clay = the “Great Compromiser”
Session 3: Open Note Quiz 1. In what region of the United States was the economy based on industry? 2. In what region of the United States was the economy based on agriculture? What was the name of the farms that produced single-cash crops? a. b. 3. The first large-scale textile factories were established where (city and state)? 4. Who was the Chief Supreme Court Justice between 1800 and 1835? 5.What did this justice’s court rule in favor of (the overall trend of the rulings)? 6. What was the warning given to the European nations stating that they could no longer colonize any territory in the Western Hemisphere? 7. Maine entered the union as a _______ state. 8. Missouri entered the union as a ________ state. 9.Who was known as “The Great Compromiser? 10. Who invented the system of interchangeable parts?