Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: Sec1-The Early Middle Ages I.The Geography of Europe A.After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D., Western Europe was divided into many."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15: Sec1-The Early Middle Ages I.The Geography of Europe A.After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D., Western Europe was divided into many kingdoms. B. Europe is a continent, but it is also a large peninsula. Most of Europe is within 300 miles of coastline, which helped trade and the economy to grow. C. Rivers in Europe made it easy to travel and trade with others. D. Seas and rivers offered protection from enemies. It also helped cultures to develop. E. Europe’s mountain ranges made it difficult for one group to rule all of Europe.
II. The Germanic Kingdoms A. The Visigoths in Spain and the Ostrogoths in Italy adopted Roman ways because of the old Roman Empire. B. In the early 400s, the Angles and Saxons from Denmark and Germany invaded Britain.-Became known as the Anglo-Saxons. The Celts who lived there fled north and west. C. The Franks were a Germanic tribe who lived in the area that is known as France. Clovis was the first Frankish ruler to become Catholic. D. Following his death, nobles(known as mayors) fought over the land. E. Charles Martel was a Frankish mayor wanted control over all the land and received support from the Catholic Church. F. In 711, Muslims conquered Spain and threatened to spread thru Europe. In 732, Charles Martel and the Franks defeated the Muslims and Christianity remained the major religion in Europe.
G. Pepin, Charles Martel’s son became mayor after his father’s death. Pepin and his army defeated a Germanic group, the Lombards, who threatened the pope. Pepin donated the land he acquired to the pope- became known as the Papal States. H. Pepin’s son Charles supported the Catholic Church and also conquered Germany and Spain. His kingdom covered much of Europe. He later changed his name to Charlemagne- he was crowned by the pope and became the new Roman emperor. I. The capital of Charlemagne empire was Aachen. J. Following Charlemagne’s death, his son divided the empire into three kingdoms, which were weak. K. Scandinavia is a country in Northern Europe and was the home of the Viking people, who were skilled sailors. The Vikings often raided much of Europe. L. Destroyed by raids, the three kingdoms dissolved. The eastern kingdom would eventually become Germany. Otto I would rule and find favor with the pope. He would become the first Holy Roman Emperor.
III. The Rise of the Catholic Church A. A priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland to spread the message of Christianity. B. Gregory the Great was pope from 590-604 A.D. sent monks out to be missionaries to spread their religion. C. Monks and missionaries played an important role in education, health care, and the preservation of knowledge. D. In 1073, Gregory VII was elected pope. He issued a decree that forbid kings from appointing high-ranking Church officials. Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, refused to obey. E. Henry declared Gregory no longer a pope. Gregory excommunicated Henry, excluding him for church membership. When the German nobles chose a new emperor, Gregory accepted him. Henry declared war against Gregory.
Rise of the Catholic Church F. In 1122, a new emperor and a new pope made an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. They agreed that only the pope could choose bishops, and only the emperor could give them jobs in the government. G. The Catholic Church became very powerful under Pope Innocent III. He controlled kings b threatening to withhold Christian rituals such as communion from a king or a country’s people.