Presentation on theme: "“A victor’s peace would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between."— Presentation transcript:
“A victor’s peace would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between equals can last.” Excerpt from Wilson’s speech to the Senate on January 22, 1917 (almost 2 years before the end of the war and 3 months before the United States entered the war.) Source:
The End of the “Great War” “Eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918
The Big Four President Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau Vittorio Orlando David Lloyd George
Wilson’s Fourteen Points First five – Avoid war –No alliances –Freedom of seas –Free trade –Arms reduction –Fair policies between imperial & colonial nations Next eight deal with boundary changes based on ethnic identities (see map) Fourteenth Point – General association of nations
» Name four countries that are created as a result » of the Treaty of Versailles.
The League of Nations Only point included in treaty Purpose: to promote international peace and security The toll of WWI encourages the prevention of future catastrophes (Germany was excluded until 1926)
What are provisions of Treaty? Broke up Ottoman Empire and Austria Hungary Nine new nations established Germany returns Alsace- Lorraine to France Germany is essentially disarmed –German army reduced to a maximum of 100,000 soldiers –German navy is similarly reduced –Forbidden to build major weapons of aggression
Weaknesses of Treaty Treaty humiliates & bankrupts Germany –War-guilt clause – forced to accept total blame for war. Most Germans hated treaty –Reparations - $33 billion to Allies –Downsize their military and navy Bolsheviks in Russia/Soviet Union left out –Russia suffered most casualties during WWI –Lost more territory than Germany –Stalin is determined to regain lost territory What to do with colonies? –Germany stripped of all colonies to help pay reparations –Ignored self-determination claims of Asian peoples –Ho Chi Minh – wanted independence for French Indochina/Vietnam. Appealed to Pres. Wilson who ignored him.