2 I. The Vascular Plant Body A. Tissues - 3 types of tissue1. Dermal tissue – tissue which covers a planta. A thin layer of epidermis covers non-woody partsb. Severl layers of cork cover woody parts2. Ground tissue – specialized tissuea. photosynthesis in leavesb. support in stemsc. storage in roots3. Vascular tissue – conducts water, minerals and organic compoundsa. Xylem - conducts water and minerals from roots to leaves through tubes made of hollow cellsb. Phloem – conducts nutrients (sugars/starches) through tubes of living cells.
4 B. Roots 1. Function a. Anchor – holds plant in place b. Absorption – absorb water and minerals from soilc. Storage – can store carbohydrates2. Structurea. Have a central core of vascular tissue which issurrounded by ground tissue and epidermal tissueb. Root hairs on root tips increase surface area forabsorption3. Typesa. Fibrous - many branching roots (monocots)b. Tap - large central root with small branches (dicots)c. Adventitious – supporting roots
6 C. Stems 1. Function a. Support leaves b. House vascular tissue 2. Types of stemsa. Non-woody (herbaceous) – contain bundles ofxylem surround by a cylinder of phloemi. moncots have scattered bundlesii. dicots have bundles arranged in a ringb. Woody stems – have an inner core of xylemsurrounded by a cylinder of phloemi. Heartwood – wood in the center of a maturestem which no longer conducts waterii. Sapwood – lies outside the heartwood andcan conduct water
8 D. Leaves 1. Function a. Primary photosynthetic organs b. Exchange gases – take in CO2 and release O22. Structurea. Ground tissue and vascular tissue surroundedby epidermisb. Mesophyll conducts photosynthesisc. Openings in the epidermis called stomata (plural)exchange gases.d. Guard cells surround the stoma3. Typesa. simple – one blade attached to petioleb. compound – several blades attached to petiole
11 II. Transport in Plants Movement of Water 1. Transpiration – the loss of water from a plant’sleaves2. Creates a pull that draws water up through xylemfrom roots to leaves3. Guard cells - cells surrounding the stomataa. Control water loss by opening or closing the stomatab. Regulate the rate of transpirationc. Number and structure of stomata depend uponclimate
13 B. Movement of Organic Compounds 1. Source – Part of the plant that provides organic compounds for other parts of the plant2. Sink – part of the plant that receives the organic compounds.3. Translocation – the movement of organiccompounds within a plant from source to sink
15 III. Reproductive Structures A. Flowers1. Have 4 types of partsa. Petals – often brightly colored/marked to attractpollinatorsb. Sepals – protect buds/ attract pollinatorsc. Stamens – male structures – produce pollen inthe anthersd. Pistils – female structures – produce ovules inovary
18 B. Fruit1. Formed from the enlarged ovary and sometimes other parts of the flower2. Contains seeds3. Designed to protect seed4. Designed to promote dispersal of seeds5. Types of fruita. Fleshy fruits – juicy, full of water and sugarcucumber, avocado, tomato, apple, orange, berriesb. Dry fruits – have dry fruit wallspeanuts, sunflower seeds, bean pods, cacoa