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Regents Review 4 Ecology: The Biosphere. Ecology Basic Terms Define the term biotic Biotic – living part of the ecosystem Plants animals Define the term.

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Presentation on theme: "Regents Review 4 Ecology: The Biosphere. Ecology Basic Terms Define the term biotic Biotic – living part of the ecosystem Plants animals Define the term."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regents Review 4 Ecology: The Biosphere

2 Ecology Basic Terms Define the term biotic Biotic – living part of the ecosystem Plants animals Define the term abiotic Abiotic – the non-living portion of the ecosystem Light Water Gases Mineral Rocks

3 Basic Terms continued Define Autotroph/Producer. Organism that can produce its own food source. Example: Plants and some bacteria Define the term Heterotroph/Consumer Organisms that must feed on other biotic factors to acquire energy. Example: humans

4 Organization Define biosphere Area where life is contained including all land, water and air State the order organization of the biosphere from most specific to most broad Species, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome, Biosphere

5 Organization continued Define species. Give an example Species: a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. Example: humans, great danes, moose, etc. Define Population. Give an example Population: groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in a given area. Example: All great danes, all moose

6 Organization continued Define Community. Give an example Community: assemblage of different populations that live in a defined area. Example: All humans and moose and dogs in a given area Define Ecosystem Ecosystem: collection of all populations and the abiotic factors living in a given area Define Biome. Give an example Biome: group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. Example: desert, rainforest, deciduous forest

7 Energy Flow State the original source of all energy on the planet The Sun How does the energy get into the ecosystem? Plants By which process? Photosynthesis

8 Energy Flow continued How can energy flow be visually expressed? Energy Pyramid Which organisms would we find at the base of the pyramid? Producers At the next few consecutive levels? Consumers

9 Types of Consumers Define the term Herbivore. Give an example Herbivore – organisms that consume plant matter. Cows, sheep Why are they considered primary consumers? First to acquire energy from the plant Define the term Carnivore. Give an example Carnivore – organisms that that eat plant eating and meat eating organisms. Snakes, lions, tigers, bears …oh my!!

10 Consumers continued Why can carnivores be considered secondary, tertiary, etc. consumers? Depending if they eat primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc. Define the term Omnivore. Give an example Omnivore – an organism that consumes both plant and animal matter. Humans Define the term decomposer. Give an example Decomposer – organism that consumes dead or decaying matter. Examples: Bacteria, fungi

11 Energy Pyramid What is the name given to each energy level? Trophic levels Why do the trophic levels get smaller with each successive level? Energy is lost to life functions and only a small percentage is passed on How much energy is available or transfer at each level? 10%

12 Energy Pyramid How would the energy flow be affected if the producers were lost or reduced in numbers? The pyramid would collapse or sustain less organisms

13 Food Web vs. Food Chain Define food chain. Give an example Series of steps in a single direction from producer to last consumer Example: Seed – mouse – snake – owl Define food web. Number of intertwining/connected food chains Why is the food web more stable than a food chain? More energy pathways so energy flow will not be completely stopped if one organism is lost

14 Food Web vs. Food Chain

15 Biomass Pyramid Define the term biomass Biomass – is the total dry weight of an organism Why must biomass decrease as you move up the energy pyramid on land? Each level must have enough mass to sustain the next level above it

16 Cycling of Materials Identify materials that are recycled through the environment Water, carbon, oxygen, etc. Is energy recycled? NO!!!! Why must some materials be recycled while others do not? Limited resource on the planet. Energy comes from the Sun

17 Carbon Cycle Briefly describe the cycling of carbon in the ecosystem Enters through photosynthesis – converted to glucose – passes to consumer when eaten – released by cell respiration as carbon dioxide into the environment Briefly describe the nitrogen cycle

18 Organismal Interactions Define the term predation. Give an example One organism feeds another. Wolf and moose, tiger and gazelle Define the term Mutualism. Give an example When both organisms benefit from the interaction. Example: Humans and intestinal bacteria Define Commensalism. Give an example Commensalism – when one organism benefits from the interaction and the other does not gain or lose anything. Example: Whales and barnacles Define the term Parasitism. Give an example. Parasitism – one organism lives on or in another and benefits with the host is harmed. Example: tapeworm and human

19 Succession Define primary succession. Give an example Primary succession – development of an ecosystem from no life Explain the importance of a pioneer organism. Give an example Lichen is an example Define secondary succession. Give an example Secondary succession – recovery of an ecosystem after a natural disaster or human influence. The resulting ecosystem can be the same or different from the original ecosystem

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