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Class Starter Please list the first five words or phrases that come to your mind when you hear the word : CHEMISTRY.

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Presentation on theme: "Class Starter Please list the first five words or phrases that come to your mind when you hear the word : CHEMISTRY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Starter Please list the first five words or phrases that come to your mind when you hear the word : CHEMISTRY

2 Chapter 1 “Introduction to Chemistry”

3 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVE:
Students will be able to describe the purpose of studying chemistry.

4 What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of “matter” –
Matter is anything with mass and occupies space What qualifies as matter? What does not qualify as matter?

5 5 Major Areas of Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math! Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact

6 - Page 8

7 What is Chemistry? Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application

8 Why Study Chemistry? Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen A possible career for your future

9 Section 1.3 Scientific Method
OBJECTIVE: Students will be able to derive the steps of the scientific method from their knowledge of science.

10 The Scientific Method A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting and recording information and facts hypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment

11 Steps in the Scientific Method
1. Observations (uses your senses) a) quantitative involves numbers = 95oF b) qualitative is word description = hot 2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) - possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess 3. Performing experiments (the test) - gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid

12 Scientific Method “controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers: hypothesis is right hypothesis is wrong We gather data and observations by doing the experiment Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle

13 Scientific Method We deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types: 1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change 2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result

14 Outcomes over the long term…
Theory (Model) - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved Natural Law (or Scientific Law) - The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results - an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass

15 A law summarizes what has happened.
Law vs. Theory A law summarizes what has happened. A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.

16 - Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an “educated” guess Tells what happened A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries

17 Section 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry
OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to determine the appropriate problem solving technique for every type of problem.

18 Problem Solving in Chemistry You don’t need to write any of this
Problem Solving in Chemistry You don’t need to write any of this. These are just points for discussion. In Chemistry we are faced with problems we need to solve like in life How should we approach problems? There is a problem solving method that needs to be learned.

19 Solving Numeric Problems
Measurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathematics Word problems are real life problems, and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solution

20 Solving Numeric Problems
The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are: Analyze Calculate Evaluate Let’s learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!

21 Solving Numeric Problems
1. Analyze: this is the starting point Determine what are the known factors, and write them down on your paper! Determine what is the unknown. If it is a number, determine the units needed Plan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graph This is the heart of successful problem solving techniques – it is the PLAN

22 Solving Numeric Problems
2. Calculate: perform the mathematics If your plan is correct, this is the easiest step. Use a calculator and do it correctly! May involve rearranging an equation or doing some conversion of units to some other units.

23 Solving Numeric Problems
3. Evaluate: – the finishing step Is it reasonable? Make sense? Check your calculations. Do you need to round off the answer? Do you need scientific notation? Do you have the correct units? Did you answer the question?

24 Solving Conceptual Problems
Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations Nonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems – ask you to apply concepts to a new situation Steps are: 1) Analyze and 2) Solve Do Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46

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