Presentation on theme: "Plant Tissues Plant structures are composed of 4 main tissues. They are: Epidermis – outer layer of cells which protect the plant from water loss and from."— Presentation transcript:
1 Plant TissuesPlant structures are composed of 4 main tissues. They are:Epidermis – outer layer of cells which protect the plant from water loss and from fungi and bacteriaVascular Tissues – transport water, sugars and other materials through the plantGround Tissues – tissues that the vascular tissue is embedded in…. usually storage cellsMeristematic – cells that divide
2 Plant Tissues Meristematic- growth Epidermal- protection Parenchyma- storageSclerenchyma- strengthen and supportVascular- transportationxylem = water + nutrientsphloem = plant products in solution
4 In Most PlantsGlucose is produced in the leaves through photosynthesis.The glucose is converted to sucrose (by dehydration synthesis) for transportation.The sucrose is converted to starch and stored.
5 Roots Roots have many functions. 1. anchor the plant2. bind soil… stops erosion3. absorb water and minerals4. store food (usually as starch)
7 Taproots look large and fleshy, are mostly found in plants with two seed-leaves (dicots),grow deep into the ground to search for food,are able to store food, which is particularly necessary for perennial plants during periods of dormancy.
8 Fibrous roots lie close to the surface of the soil, are mostly found in plants with one seed-leaf (monocots)collect precipitation before it sinks deep into the ground,can often be found growing side by side with taproots- the two types of roots combine efforts to maximize efficiency.
9 Adventitious roots are common in both dicots and monocots develop to help the plant climb: for example, ivyhelp develop modified underground stems, such as bulbs
10 Aerial Roots modified to absorb water from the air Aerial roots of an Orchid Orchids in bloom
11 Root Hairs are actually epidermal cells adapted to absorb water * Water enters the cells by Osmosis* Minerals enter by Active Transport
12 Regions of the root tipRegion of Maturation - Most cells differentiate into various distinctive cell types.Root hairs form.Region of Elongation - Cells become several times their original length.Vacuoles mergeRegion of Cell Division - Composed of apical meristem in the center of the root tip.Most cell division occurs at the edge of the inverted cup-shaped zone.Root Cap - Thimble-shaped mass of parenchyma cells covering each root tip.Protects tissue from damage.Function in gravity perception.
14 The Function of Root Tissues Epidermis – outer layer of cells, provide protection from drying out, water loss and infection.Cortex – area made up of parenchyma cells. Parenchyma cells are usually storage cellsEndodermis – regulates materials entering the center of the root.Pericycle –the outermost layer of cells of the steleXylem – transports waterPhloem – transports sugarStele – Also known as the “Vascular Cylinder”…… made up of the xylem and phloemPith – tissue located in the center of the stemApical Meristem - (Meristematic Tissue) – tissue that in a constant state of growth… apical means “located at the tip”Meristem accounts for the increase in length of the roots and stems.