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Presentation on theme: "WASHCOST PROJECT IRC/KNUST"— Presentation transcript:

Institutional mapping exercise related to WASH services for rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana WASHCOST PROJECT IRC/KNUST

2 Outline of presentation
Introduction: study purpose, TOR & Outputs WASH sector overview Informal relationships Use of ICT in decision-making processes Ongoing pro-poor projects Issues for WASHCost study WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

3 Purpose of WASHCost Project
Background WASHCost project aims at identifying the real disaggregated cost of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in rural and peri-urban areas, and the range of physical, social, economic and political factors that influence those costs WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

4 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation
WASHCost Partners Partners IRC KNUST WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

5 WASHCost Institutional Mapping
Objective to carry out an institutional mapping exercise and initial assessment of the availability and use of unit cost data in the WASH sector serving rural and peri-urban areas in Ghana. Purpose to provide an understanding of the WASH sector with respect to governance, availability and use of cost information, planning and decision making particularly to the poor in the rural and peri-urban areas. The assessment will support the WASHCost project implementation in Ghana. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

6 WASHCost Institutional Mapping - 2
Scope of scanning activities: Institutional Mapping Planning and decision making processes and support system and tools Unit cost information scan Training needs assessment of key sector actors as it relates to collection Analysis and use of cost data for improving the performance of the WASH sector WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

7 Working definitions in Ghana WASH Context
Institutional framework The term ‘institutional’ is used in a contextual manner to cover: policies based on which sector strategies and programmes in the are implemented; organisations (actors) to implement these policies; and the legal framework needed to support the policies as well as the institutional actions Thus ‘institutional framework’ looks beyond organisations and their functions WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

8 Working definitions (2)
Small towns a community that is not rural but is a small urban community, with population between 2,000 to 30,000 that has been mandated by the relevant authority (ies) to manage its own water and sanitation systems”. [Ref: NWP] This definition should be contrasted with that used by CWSA in its Small Towns Water and Sanitation Policy, which defined small towns as communities with populations between 2,000 – 50,000. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

9 Working definitions (3)
Peri-urban communities include: Communities not considered as small towns, are supposed to be covered by the utility (GWCL) and yet do not receive reliable supply or are not served at all. They tend to have an orphan status as they do not belong to small towns and yet have demographic characteristics similar to them, neither do they have demand characteristics and supply options which the utility typically responds to, or offers. Low income communities (formal and informal) in large urban areas and cities WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

10 Working definitions (4)
Rural communities Community with a population of less than 5,000 people or any other figure which the Minister of Water Resources, Works and Housing, in consultation with appropriate government agencies, may from time to time declare by publication in the Gazzette and the mass media Other documents put the population threshold at 2,000 and below WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

11 Working definitions (5)
Definition of urban poor those without access to the utility’s mains; who depend on secondary or tertiary providers for their supply; and who buy by the bucket This definition is based on that used by the PURC in defining the poor in its social policy for water sector regulation WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

12 Understanding Wash Unit Cost
Sustainable WASH service delivery How much does it cost to deliver sustainable WASH services in Community X ? We can give you cost for a facility but not a sustainable service Planning Decision making Implementation etc WASH services WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

13 Understanding Wash Unit Cost - 2
Determination of Life cycle cost of sustainable WASH service Use of the cost information in decision making Investment Service-level Implement Upgrade Replace Service delivery approach – constant service through administration and management interspersed with capital projects Capital projects Administration & management Service level WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

14 Relevant WRM Principles for WASHCost
Principles (as enshrined in NWP): the principle of fundamental right of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs; the principle of meeting the social needs for water as a priority, while recognising the economic value of water and the goods and services it provides; the principle of recognising water as a finite and vulnerable resource, given its multiple uses; WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

15 WRM Principles relevant to WASHCost Study - 2
the principle of improving equity and gender sensitivity [how much does it cost to provide a toilet facility to a disabled person?] the principle of subsidiarity in order to ensure participatory decision-making at the lowest appropriate level in society, with users involved in the planning and implementation of projects; WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

16 Overview of Ghana WASH Sector – WS Access
House tap Yard tap Pub. stand pipe Bore hole Protected well Sachet water Unprotected well Tanker truck Improved Natio-nal 10.1 16.8 38.8 6.5 6.6 11.3 4.3 2.4 80.7 Reference: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Note however that this contrasts with the numbers given by GWCL (58%) and CWSA (53%). WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

17 Overview - Access to improved WSS (Ref: MICS)
Region % of H/H pop using improved drinking water % of H/H pop using improved sanitary facilities % of H/H pop using improved drinking water & improved sanitary facilities Western 83.2 75.9 64.8 Central 80.2 62.7 53.7 Greater Accra 88.1 85.4 78.4 Volta 52.7 38.8 26.7 Eastern 66.4 49.6 38.6 Ashanti 90.0 87.0 79.7 Brong Ahafo 71.7 79.1 60.0 Northern 73.0 25.1 20.7 Upper East 83.1 17.5 16.5 Upper West 94.8 17.2 16.4 Area Urban 90.7 82.6 76.5 Rural 69.1 45.3 34.5 National Note the significant regional differences WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

18 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation
WASH Sector Framework The Ministry of Water Resources Works and Housing (MWRWH) is the principal water sector ministry responsible for the overall policy formulation, planning, coordination and harmonisation, monitoring and evaluation of programs for the water supply and sanitation. It performs these tasks through its Water Directorate (WD), established in 2004 The Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Environment (MLGRDE) sets the policy framework for the development of local communities and oversees the performance of local administration – Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs). The MLGRDE is responsible for environmental sanitation after the environmental health and sanitation unit was ceded to her in 1995 from the Ministry of Health. The Water Resources Commission (WRC) is responsible for the regulation and the management of the country’s water resources and for the related coordination of policies and collaboration with other stakeholders in the water sector. The responsibilities of the commission are set out in the Water Resources Commission Act, 1996 (Act 522). The Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) is responsible for facilitating the delivery of WSS to rural communities and small towns in Ghana. The District Water and Sanitation Teams (DWSTs) and the District Environmental Health Offices (DEHOs) are the units responsible for WASH activities at the district level. The main objects of the Ghana Water Company Ltd. (GWCL) by the establishment Act 310 of 1965 are to provide, distribute and conserve water for domestic, public and industrial purposes. Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDB) are elected and gender-balanced voluntary representatives responsible for the mobilisation of community members, operation and maintenance of small towns water and sanitation facilities. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

19 Institutional framework for WSS in Ghana (2)
Policy, Planning, Financing, Monitoring Ministry of Water Res W&H Ministry of Finance Ministry of LGRDE Facilitation, Regulation WRC (water use regulation) PURC (economic regulation) District Assemblies (rural & small town WSS) CWSA Service Provision GWCL/AVRL (urban) WSDBs/WATSANS Small independent producers, tankers, vendors Private sector (local water operators, drillers, contractors, consultants, artisans - pump mechanics etc.) MMDAs - sewerage Implementation support Development Partners (financing, capacity building) NGOs (financing, capacity building) District Assemblies (legislative) WSS Asset ownership GWCL DAs Communities Private sector Consumers Collaborating Ministries: MOH; MOEYS WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation 19

20 Policy, Legal & Regulatory framework
Relevant Policy, legal and regulation references GPRS National Water Policy National Environmental Sanitation Policy Sector Strategies and Guidelines Sector programmes – e.g. NCWSP Acts establishing water agencies – WRC, GWCL, CWSA, Acts establishing regulatory bodies – PURC Regulations and guidelines – water abstraction, tariff setting, Strategic Investment Plans (urban, rural/small town water supply) Project Implementation Manuals WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

21 Conceptual Framework for WASH in Ghana
GPRS Policies of other Sectors National Water Policy Env. Sanitation Policy Urban WSS Peri-urban WSS Small Town WSS Rural WSS Conceptual Framework for WASH in Ghana Overall Development Blueprint: The Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy which sets out the goals for various sectors including water security and sanitation Policies: National Water Policy and National Environmental Sanitation Policy, linked up with other sectoral policies Programmes and projects for delivery of objectives set out in the policies – for urban, peri-urban (missing for the moment), small towns and rural areas Strategies, guidelines and manuals for delivery of programmes and projects WASH Actors to drive and be guided by the above – policymakers, regulators and facilitators, service providers (public and private) Utility Mgt: PURC Regulations & Guidelines Utility Mgt: PURC Regulations & Guidelines Community Mgt: National CW&S Prog. Community Mgt: National CW&S Prog. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

22 Informal service delivery
Picture depicts the supply chain, particularly in the urban areas e.g. Accra, where the utility is unable to provide service to the population. With the significant absence of alternative sources of water, tanker service taking water from the utility’s main remain the default providers for many consumers. Other secondary and tertiary may exist between the utility and the consumer, the tanker operator and the consumer. This has significant implication for pricing and water quality safety. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

23 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation
WASH Cost information Sources of information CWSA: Rural and Small towns [SIP, Implementation Manuals, Capital and Operating budgets] GWCL: Urban Water supply [SIP, Project agreements, Bills of Quantities] Development Partners [Project Appraisal Docs, Feasibility Reports, Projects and programmes [completion reports] NGOs activities Local private water operators WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

24 WASH Cost information (2)
Use of WASH Cost information Preparation of Strategic Investment Plans Preparation of specific projects WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

25 WASH Cost information (3)
Knowledge of Unit Costs According to CWSA, the concept of unit costs is quite well known as it is used for planning and executing purposes, e.g. SIP   However unit costs are known more accurately for the simpler water supply and sanitation technologies such as borehole and hand-dug wells with handpumps, and household latrines.  For piped systems, as the technologies, complexity and size of systems vary widely, the unit costs lie within a range rather than a specific figure. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

26 WASH Cost information - CWS
Community water supply 2 major unit cost documents are available to the CWSA Kwame Asante and Associates (1999) Morrison and Takyi’s report (2004) Third unit cost study will be compiled in 2008 Other unit cost information is available from project documents and reports. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

27 WASH Cost information – Peri-urban
Peri-urban WSS At the moment there is no report (published or unpublished) on the unit costs of delivering WASH services to peri-urban/low income communities The pro-poor pilot project being promoted by PURC/GWCL/WaterAid has an objective to undertake this and will need support and guidance WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

28 WASH Cost information – Sanitation
WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

29 Some information for deriving unit cost - CWS
Basis for unit cost information 20 litres of water per day; walking distance to a water facility does not exceed 500 metres a borehole or pipe system must serve no more than 300 persons 150 persons for a hand dug well; For household latrines an average of 8 persons using one latrine; For institutional latrines an average of 50 persons per squat hole. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

30 Some unit cost information – CWS (2)
Units costs for CWS Hardware Point sources - $3-6,000 per point source Pipe systems - $45 per capita Software - xx The numbers refer to the capital cost of delivering the facility WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

31 Some unit cost information – PER
Table 22: Per capita Investment Cost in the rural and semi-urban water supply and sanitation sub-sector ( ) Actual spending in US$ Population Served Actual spending in US$ per person served Ghana 134,900,000 2,600,000 52 Burkina Faso 91,700,000 2,625,000 35 Mali 103,100,000 1,150,000 90 Note: Actual number of people served in Burkina is 75% of actual numbers in order to reflect people served by sector ministry only Data comparison should be done with some caution as several factors may account for differences, including: Technology Extent of software component Relative components of small towns to rural communities Hydrogeological factors Funding sources and programme/project management costs etc WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

32 WASH Planning & Decision Making
This differs between sub-sectors Community water and sanitation delivery has an elaborated and well disseminated planning and decision-making arrangement, in which beneficiaries play a substantial part in project preparation, site selection, implementation and facilities management An attempt is being made through a number of pilot schemes to involve beneficiaries in peri-urban WASH delivery In urban WASH delivery consumer involvement is absent and comes in only after service delivery – through complaints. PURC is supposed to facilitate public hearings but these have been missing in recent years WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

33 Use of ICT in Decision Making
Concept of computerisation well grounded within the sector. However: It is very low at the District level where these are usually project related and therefore used by a few CWSA/PURC/Ministry are quite well resourced in hardware but the software aspect is weak. Computers are used mostly for basic office assignments - Word, Excel, PPT. Accounting software available. New software for capturing M&E data being promoted for the community WASH sub-sector Computers often don’t talk to each other and no mechanism exists for sharing information, sometimes even within the same organisation WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

34 WASH Projects relevant to study
New Energy/WaterAid PURC/GWCL/WaterAid Pilot Schemes UN Habitat – Water for African Cities AFD WASH Project for Brong Ahafo UNICEF – Guinea Worm Eradication Project [Northern Region] AVRL/Aqua4All WASH Projects – WASHCost, SWITCH, TPP WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

35 Unit cost from CWSA perspective
Letter from CWSA to regional offices (8/7/08): “It has become necessary to update our unit cost database to inform planning and preparation of cost estimates for project preparation. You are therefore to submit to head office the average unit cost of the under listed activities (if applicable) for 2007 undertaken in your region” Water Construction of hand dug wells (without hand pump) Drilling of boreholes (without hand pump) Drilling of boreholes (for mechanization) Construction of small town water supply scheme for population size: ( ); (5,000-10,000); (10,000-15,000); (15,000–20,000); (20,000–25,000); (25,000– 30,000); (> 30000) Construction of small communities piped water supply scheme for pop: ( ); ( ) Sanitation Construction of Mozambique slab VIP latrine Construction of rectangular reinforced slab VIP Construction of 1 seater KVIP (also 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 seater) WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

36 Observations and Conclusions
Use of unit cost information in the sector is quite well understood; however this is limited to capital costs and not the life-cycle costs of WASH services Unit cost information is useful for the ff purposes: Planning and project preparation Benchmarking Promotion of technology choices Value for money audits Having examined the institutional structures of the various actors in the WASH sector, the use of ICT in planning and decision-making processes and the use of unit cost it can be concluded that there is a significant level of awareness and knowledge as to the application of unit cost in planning and decision-making by the sector actors. However the unit cost used by the actors reflected on the particular needs of the actor concerned and therefore does not capture the full spectrum/range of considerations that will provide sustainable delivery of WASH services to the rural and the peri-urban poor communities. It is necessary to recall the usefulness of the availability and understanding of the use of unit cost information. These include: Planning and project preparation, in particular and understanding of how much it costs to deliver service to the poor so as to influence political decisions; Benchmarking purposes, in order to improve decision-making and drive towards greater efficiency; Promotion of technology choices, particularly in a sector that has been so adamant to change; Value for money, such as would help reduce graft, promote transparency and accountability and ultimately more facilities for more unserved people. The WASHCost project thus provides a useful entry point for improving the sector’s knowledge of what it costs to deliver what facility and to sustain it. It is only when there is understanding of the true costs of service delivery – including estimating the cost of what is not currently not done e.g. back-up support – that the sector can face its challenges. WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

37 Issues in Ghana WASH Cost study
What are we measuring now and what should we be measuring? Is there broad agreement on standards of service, particularly for peri-urban communities? How have currently quoted unit costs been determined? What is/should be the role of various actors in the compilation of unit costs information? What other uses can we put to unit cost information? WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation

38 WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation
THANK YOU WASHCost Powerpoint Presentation


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