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CHAPTER 3 NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the source which are useful to man or it can be transformed into a useful product. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the source which are useful to man or it can be transformed into a useful product. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the source which are useful to man or it can be transformed into a useful product. 1

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3 Kinds of Resources 1.Forest resources 2.Water resources 3.Mineral resources 4.Food resources 5.Energy resources 6.Land resources 3


5 One of the important renewable natural resource on earth. 1/3rd of the world’s land surface is covered with forest. Forest covering the earth like a green blanket. Forest not only produce innumerable material goods, but also provide several environmental services. Types of forest 1.Evergreen forest 2.Deciduous forest 3.Coniferous forest 5

6 USES Commercial: fire wood, Gum, oil and medicine Ecological: Oxygen, Sink for CO 2, Wild life habitat Over Exploitation Human beings depend heavily on forests for food, shelter, wood, fuel and medicine with growing civilization etc. thereby resulting in large scale mining, road building and clearing of forests. In India - area of forest required - good ecological balance - 33% of total area. But at present - 22%. 6

7 DEFORESTATION It is process of removal of forest resources due to natural or man made activities (i.e.) destruction of forests. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION 1. Shifting of Cultivation 2. fuel requirement 3. raw materials for industrial use 4. developmental projects 5. growing food needs 6. overgrazing 7

8 CASE STUDY 1. TIMBER EXTRACTION The important effects of timber extraction are i) thinning of forests ii) loss of biodiversity, particularly tree breading species iii) soil erosion and loss of soil fertility iv) migration of tribal people from one place to another in search of new forest v) extinction of tribal people and their culture 8

9 2. MINING Mining is a process of removing ores from area which is very much below the ground level. Mining is done for the extraction of several minerals of metals like Fe, Mn, Au, Ag, etc. The minerals are especially found in thick forests. Effects of mining: 1. Pollute soil, water and air. 2. Destruction of natural habitat. 3. Continuous removal of minerals leads to the formation of trench where water is logged which contaminates the ground water. 4. Vibrations cause earth quakes. 5. Produces noise pollution 6. Reduces shape and size of the forest. 7. Some times land slides may also occur. 9

10 3. DAM Dams destruct vast area of forest area. India has more than 1600 large dams. Effects of dams on forest: 1. Thousands of hectares of forest have been cleared. 2. Killing of wild animals and destruction of aquatic life. 3. Spreading of water borne diseases. 4. Water logging reduces the salinity of the soil. (e.g) Narmadha sagar project it has submerged 3.5 lakhs hectares of forest. 10

11 Effects of dam on tribal people: 1. Construction of big dam leads to the displacement of tribal people. 2. Displacement and cultural change affects the tribal people both mentally and physically. 3. They do not accommodate the modern food habits and life style. 4. Tribal people are ill treated by the modern society. 5. Many of the displaced people were not recognised and resettled or compensated. 6. Body condition of tribal people will not suit with new areas and hence they will be affected by many diseases. 11

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13 Water is essential component of all living things 97% of earth surface is covered with water Most of the animals and plants have 60-65% of water in their body Out of the total available water 75% is used for agriculture, 20% for industrial usage In our country ~93% of water is used for agricultural purposes 13

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15 OVER UTILIZATION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER Demands have increased many folds - large proportion of the water - polluted due to anthropogenic activities. Out of the total water reserves - 97% is salty water - 3% is fresh water. Even this small fraction - locked up in polar ice caps - 0.003% is readily available to us in the form of ground water and surface water. 15

16 Effects of over exploitation of water Subsidence When ground water withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments in the aquifer (a layer of rock that is highly permeable and contains water) get compacted, a phenomenon knows as ground subsidence. It results in sinking of overlying land surface. Due to this structural damage in buildings, fracture in pipes etc., occurs. 16

17 Lowering of water table Mining of groundwater is done extensively for irrigating crop fields. However, excessive mining would cause lowering of water table. Water logging When excessive irrigation is done with brackish water it raises the water table gradually leading to water-logging and salinity problems. 17

18 Flood It is an over flow of water. It happens when the magnitude of flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its bank. Causes of flood 1. Heavy rainfall, melting of snow and sudden release of water from dams. 2. Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel. 3. Deforestation, mining and over grazing increase the run off from rains and the level of flood raises. 18

19 Effect of flood 1. Water spreads in the surrounding area and submerges them. 2. Cultivated land affected. 3. Extinction of civilisation. Flood Management 1. Floods can be controlled by dams. 2. Channel management and embankment also control flood. 3. Flood hazards reduced by forecasting or flood warning. 4. Flood may also be reduced by reduction of run off by increasing infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment area. 19

20 Drought: Drought is nothing but scarcity of water, which occurs due to 1. Inadequate rain fall 2. Late arrival of rain fall 3. Excessive withdrawal of ground water. Lack of water for the narrow needs of agriculture, livestock, industry or human population may be termed as a drought. Drought causes serious damages to plants, animals and human life. 20

21 Types of drought 1. Meteorological drought It occurs when the total amount of rain fall is less than 75% of the normal rain fall. It will be severe if the rain fall is less than 50%. 2. Hydrological drought It occurs when the total amount of rainfall is less than the average rain fall. It is generally associated with reduction of water in aquifers, lakes and reservoirs. 21

22 3. Agricultural drought It occurs due to the shortage as well as timing of over all rain fall, which intern reduce the ground water level and reservoir level. Agricultural drought affects cropped plants. 4. Socio economic drought It occurs due to reduction in the availability of food and social security of the people in the affected areas. Socio economic drought leads to famine. 22

23 Causes of drought 1. When annual rain falls below normal and less than evaporation, drought is created. 2. High population. 3. Intensive cropping pattern (e.g.) Maharashtra There has been no recovery from drought for the last 30 years due to over exploitation of water by sugarcane crop. 23

24 Effects of drought 1. Hunger, malnutrition and scarcity of drinking water can also changes the quality of water. 2. Worst situation of drought causes desertification. 3. Raw materials of agro based industries are critically affected during drought time, hence industrial and commercial growth decreases. 4. Drought increases the degradation of natural resources. 5. Drought causes large migration of people and urbanisation. 24

25 Drought management 1. Indigenous knowledge is essential. 2. Rain water harvesting system. 3. Construction of reservoir to improve ground water level. 4. Modern irrigation technology (drip irrigation) very useful to conserve water. 5. Afforestation activities also improve the potential of water in the drought area. 25

26 Conflicts over water Causes of water conflict 1. Conflict through use Unequal distribution of water led to inter state and international disputes. National conflicts a. Sharing of cauvery water between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. b. Sharing of Krishna water between Karnataka and Andra Pradesh c. Siruvani – TamilNadu and Kerala International conflicts a. Indus – India and Pakistan b. Colorado river – México and USA c. Bhramaputra – India and Bangladesh 26

27 2. Construction of dams or power stations For hydro electric power generation, dams are built across the river. It creates the conflicts between the states. 3. Conflicts through pollution Water reservoirs like lakes and rivers are also used for industrial purposes, therefore removal industrial wastes creates conflicts. 27

28 Management of conflicts over water 1. Implement laws to check these practices to control water pollution. 2. The inter linking of rivers has been one such solution Case study Conflicts on Indian River, According to UN report, 1 billion people – no fresh drinking water 2 billion people – no water for proper sanitation. (e.g) Damodhar River Most polluted river from 45 major industries 28


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32 Mineral resources Naturally occurring substances with different physical and chemical properties. Ores These are mineral or combination of minerals from which metal can be extracted. Concentration of minerals at one particular spot is called mineral deposit. 32

33 Classification of mineral resources non renewable mineral resources are 3 categories. 1. Identified resources Location, existence, quality and quantity known by direct geological evidence and measurement. 2. Undiscovered resources Assumed to exist on the basic of geological knowledge, but their specific location, quality and quantity are unknown. 3. Reserves Minerals are identified. Usable materials can be extracted profitably. 33

34 Uses and exploitation of minerals 1.Development of industrial plants and machinery. - Fe, Al & Cu 2. Construction work – Fe, Al &Ni 3. Generation of energy - coal, lignite, uranium 4. Designing defence equipments like weapons and ornaments 34

35 5. Agricultural purposes – fertilisers and fungicides – Zn & Mn 6. Jewellery –Au, Ag & Pt 7. Making alloys for various purposes – phosphoresces 8. Communication purposes – telephone, wires, cables and electronic devices 9. Medicinal purposes, particularly in ayurvedic system – sulphur pyrites 35

36 S.NOMINERAL AVAILABLE STATE 1 Iron, Aluminium, Magnesite Tamil Nadu 2Coal Orissa & West bengal 3GoldKarnataka 4 Manganese, Lime stone M P 36

37 Environmental damages caused by mining activities 1. Devegetation : topsoil and vegetation are removed deforestation leads to several ecological losses landscape badly affected 2. Ground water contamination: Mining pollutes ground water, sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid which enters into the soil. 37

38 3. Surface water pollution Radioactive wastes and other acidic impurities affect the surface water, which kills many aquatic animals. 4. Air pollution Smelting and roasting are done to purify the metal which emits air pollutants and damage the nearby vegetation. It causes many health problems. 5. Subsidence of land Mainly underground mining results in cracks in houses, tilting of buildings and bending of rail tracks. 38

39 Effects of over exploitation of minerals 1. Rapid depletion of mineral deposits 2. Wastage 3. Environmental pollution 4. Needs heavy energy requirements. Management of mineral resources 1. The efficient use and protection of mineral resources. 2. Modernisation of mining industries 3. Search for new deposit 4. Reuse and recycling of the metals. 5. Environmental impacts can be minimised by adopting eco friendly mining technology. 39

40 Case studies Mining and quarrying in Udaipur 200 open cast mining and quarrying in Udaipur. But 100 mining's are illegal. 150 tonnes of explosives are used per month. It pollutes air, soil and water. It affects irrigation and wild life. 40

41 India is 3 rd largest producer of crops, nearly 300 million Indians are still under nourished FOOD RESOURCES 41

42 World Food Problems  During the last 50 years world grain production has increased almost three times.  The per capita production is increased by about 50%.  Every 40 million people die of undernourishment and malnutrition.  Our food problem is killing as many people as were killed by the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II.  This statistics emphasize the need to increase our food production, and also to control population growth.  It is estimated that 300 millions are still undernourished. 42

43 Over grazing It is a process of eating the forest vegetation without giving a chance to regenerate. Impact of overgrazing 1.Land degradation 2.Soil erosion 3.Loss of useful species 43

44 Agriculture Agriculture is an art, science and industry of managing the growth of plants animals for human use. It includes cultivation of the soil, growing and harvesting crops, breeding and raising livestock, dairying and forestry. Types of agriculture 1. Traditional agriculture 2. Modern (or) industrialised agriculture 44

45 Main impacts  Deforestation  Soil erosion  Depletion of nutrients Modern Agriculture and its impacts  It makes use of hybrid seeds  High-tech equipments, lots of energy subsidies in the form of fertilizers and pesticides  Irrigation water 45

46 Problems in using fertilizers a. Excess of fertilisers causes micronutrient imbalance (e.g) Punjab and Haryana deficiency of nutrient zinc in the soil affect the productivity of the soil. b. Blue baby syndrome(nitrate pollution) Nitrate present in the fertiliser causes blue baby syndrome, when the amount exceeds the limit leads to death. c. Eutrophication Nitrogen and phosphorus in the crop fields washed out by run off water in the water bodies, which increases the nourishment of the lakes called eutrophication. Hence algal species increases rapidly. Life time of the species is less and they decompose easily and pollute the water which affects the aquatic life. 46

47 Problems in using pesticides 1. Death of non target organism. 2. Producing new pest – super pest 3. Bio magnification – Most of the pesticides are non bio degradable, keep on concentrating in the food chain and it is harmful to human beings. 4. Risk of cancer: a. It directly acts as carcinogen b. It indirectly supports immune system. 47

48 Water logging Land where water stand for most of the year. Causes of water logging 1. Excessive water supply 2. Heavy rain 3. Poor drainage Remedy 1. Preventing excessive irrigation 2. Subsurface drainage technology 3. Bio drainage like trees like Eucalyptus 48

49 Salinity Problem At present one third of the total cultivable land area of the world is affected by salts. Saline soils are characterized by the accumulation of soluble salts like sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride etc. in the soil profile. So this soils have carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium, the pH usually exceed 8. 49

50 Energy is defined as, “ the capacity to do work ” ENERGY RESOURCES 50

51 Development of energy Woodcoaloilalternate energy (solar, wind, tidal energy) Energy distribution in the world Developed countries like USA and Canada constitute only 5% of the world’s population but consume 25% of the world’s available energy. Energy consumed by a person in a developed country for a single day is equal to energy consumed by a single person in a poor country for one year. 51

52 Renewable energy resources (or) non-conventional energy resources Natural resources can be regenerated continuously and are inexhaustible. They can be used again and again in an endless manner. Example: Wood, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower energy, etc., Merits of renewable energy resources 1. Unlimited supply. 2. Provides energy security. 3. Fits into sustainable development concept. 4. Reliable and the devices are modular in size. 5. Decentralized energy production. 52

53 Non- Renewable energy resources (or) Conventional energy resources Natural resources which cannot be regenerated once they are exhausted. They cannot be used again. Example: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear fuels.  Even our renewable resources can become non-renewable if we exploit them to such extent their rate of consumption exceeds their rate of regeneration.  Wood is renewable resources but not coal-why?  Wood is renewable resources because we can get new wood by growing sapling into a tree within 15-20 years.  But the formation of coal from trees 53

54 Solar energy Wind energy Ocean energy (tidal energy) Geo thermal energy Biomass energy (Biogas, Bio fuels, Hydrogen fuel) Alternate energy sources 54

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60  About 38% of the area in India suffers from moderate to high degree of water based erosion.  The per capita availability of land in the country has declined from 1.37 hectare in 1901 to 0.33 hectare in 2000. LAND RESOURCES 60

61 Land resources Land is the most important valuable resource for mankind, It provides food, fibre, medicine. It is a mixture of inorganic materials and organic materials. To construct building Acts as a dustbin for most of the wastes created by the modern society. Land degradation It is a process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility. 61

62  It has been estimated that more than 5000 million tonnes of top soil is eroded annually along with 5 million tones of nutrients.  About 1/3 of this is lost in sea while the rest in reservoirs and rivers leading to flood. Effects of land degradation 1. Soil texture and soil structure are destructed. 2. Loss of soil fertility. 3. Loss of valuable nutrients. 4. Increase in water logging, salinity, alkalinity and acidity problem. 5. Loss of economic social and biodiversity. 62

63 Causes of land degradation 1)Population 2)Urbanization 3)Fertilizers and pesticides 4)Damage of top soil 5)Water logging 6)Soil erosion Soil erosion Soil erosion is the process of removal of superficial layer of the soil from one place to another. 63

64 Harmful effects of soil erosion 1) Soil fertility is lost because of loss of top soil layer. 2) Loss of its ability to hold water and sediment. 3) Sediment runoff can pollute water and kill aquatic life. Types of soil erosion (i)Normal erosion Gradual removal of top soil by the natural process. The rate of erosion is slower. (ii)Accelerated erosion Caused by man-made activities The rate of erosion is much faster than the rate of formation of soil. 64

65 DESERTIFICATION Progressive destruction or degradation of arid or semiarid lands to desert. Harmful effect of desertification  Around 80% of the productive land in the arid and semi- regions are converted into desert.  Around 600 million people are threatened by desertification. Causes of Desertification I.Deforestation II.Over grazing III.Water management IV.Mining and Quarrying V.Climate change 65

66 Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources Conservation of energy 1. Switch off light, fan and other appliances when not in use. 2. Use solar heater for cooking. 3. Dry the cloth in the sun light instead of driers. 4. Use always pressure cookers 5. Grow trees near the house to get cool breeze instead of using AC and air cooler. 6. Ride bicycle or just walk instead of using scooter for a short distance. 66

67 Conservation of water 1. Use minimum water for all domestic purposes. 2. check the water leaks in pipes and repair them properly. 3. Reuse the soapy water, after washing clothes for washing courtyard, carpets etc. 4. Use drip irrigation. 5. Rain water harvesting system should be installed in all the houses. 6. Sewage treatment plant may be installed in all industries and institution. 7. Continuous running of water taps should be avoided. 8. Watering of plants should be done in the evening.. 67

68 Conservation of soil 1. Grow different type plants i.e trees, herbs and shrubs. 2. In the irrigation process, using strong flow of water should be avoided. 3. Soil erosion can be prevented by sprinkling irrigation. 4. Use green manures in the garden. 5. Use mixed cropping. Conservation of food resources 1. Cook required amount of food. 2. Don’t waste the food, give it to some one before spoiling. 3. Don’t store large amount of food grains and protect them from damaging insects. 68

69 Conservation of forest 1. Use non timber product. 2. Plant more trees. 3. Grassing must be controlled 4. Minimise the use of paper and fuel. 5. Avoid the construction of dam, road in the forest areas. Equitable use of resources for sustainable life style Two basic cause of unsustainability are over population in poor countries and over consumption of resources by rich countries generate wastes Rich countries lower down their consumption level Poor countries fulfilled by providing them resources 69

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