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The Three Appeals of Argument

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Presentation on theme: "The Three Appeals of Argument"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Three Appeals of Argument
Logos, Ethos, Pathos The Three Appeals of Argument

2 Logos Rational Logical

3 Logos Is your argument based on logical & appropriate evidence?
Does it require one of the following types of reasoning: Deductive Inductive

4 Logos Deductive reasoning: Begins with a generalization
Cites a specific case related to the generalization Ends with a conclusion based on the above

5 Logos Aristotle’s example of deductive reasoning: All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal.

6 Logos Inductive reasoning:
Begins with several pieces of specific evidence Draws generalization and conclusion from this evidence

7 Logos Same example reversed:
Socrates is mortal. Plato is mortal. Pythagoras is mortal All men are mortal.

8 Be Aware of Generalizations
Post hoc ergo propter hoc: This is a conclusion that assumes that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.' Example: I went to school and now I am sick, so school must have made me sick.

9 Ethos Ethical appeal

10 Aristotle: "There is persuasion] through character whenever the speech is spoken in such a way as to make the speaker worthy of credence; for we believe fair-minded people to greater extent and more quickly [than we do others] on all subjects in general and completely so in cases where there is not exact knowledge but room for doubt. And this should result from the speech, not from a previous opinion that the speaker is a certain kind of person."

11 Ethos Refers not to the ethics of the argument, but to the ethics of the person making the argument Shows that the person making the argument has a certain degree of credibility, is of good character and is qualified to be making the argument

12 Ethos= Credibility What is credibility?
Are YOU a credible source? If so, how so?

13 Ethos 1. What does the author do to present herself as a credible source? Does the author give you direct information? (degrees, previous research, recognition, etc.) 2. Does the author respect her audience? What does she do to show that respect (or lack of)? 3. Is her tone overly sarcastic? despondent? condescending? 4. Does the author have a biased world view/opinion? Does the author acknowledge or address her opposition at all or in a respectful manner? 5. Is the author careful and clean in her presentation? Should we take the author seriously if she does not pay close attention to detail? 6. Is the author honest? Does she use quality evidence and research, properly documented and supported?

14 Pathos Emotional appeal

15 Pathos It is fine and even appropriate to use emotional appeal in your argument But… Trouble can occur when this the sole or primary basis of your argument

16 Pathos Use in conjunction with logos to reach your audience
Emotions appeal to audience more powerfully than reason alone

17 Pathos 1. How does the text make you feel? Annoyed? Scared? Excited? Close to tears? 2. How do the elements of the text function to make you feel that way? 3. Is the tone intense, detached, hectic, overly casual? What emotional response does the tone evoke? 4. Do the meanings of specific words or phrases evoke a strong emotional response? 5. Does the author use metaphors to evoke certain emotions? 6. Does the author manipulate the audience by unduly evoking emotions? (sentimentality) 7. Are the examples the author uses logically irrelevant but emotion-packed? What emotions do the examples evoke?

18 Logos, Pathos or Ethos?

19 Logos, Pathos or Ethos?

20 Logos, Pathos or Ethos?

21 Logos, Pathos or Ethos?

22 Logos, Pathos or Ethos?

23 Sell Your Product Yes, I know sex sells so please
Choose an item/product and create an advertisement. The ad must represent an appeal to logos, pathos, or ethos ( or a combination of…) The ad must be representative of your best work. Be prepared to defend your creation. Yes, I know sex sells so please keep it classroom appropriate!!!

24 Logos, Pathos, Ethos Make it Personal
Examples: “I Have A Dream”- Martin Luther King Jr. All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten- Robert Fulghum

25 Sell Yourself Choose a personal credo
Use this credo to assist you in developing an autobiography.

26 Compose Your Story cont.
It’s not enough to say this is my birth/life story—connect the credo to the life story. Why do you subscribe to this credo? Apply logos, pathos or ethos so that you leave your audience “buying” your story

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