Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9-10: Separation of the Churches, Crusades, Feudalism, and the Fall of Constantinople Sisley Yan Period 4."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9-10: Separation of the Churches, Crusades, Feudalism, and the Fall of Constantinople Sisley Yan Period 4
Separation of the Churches 9th century (800): Charlemagne (the King of Franks) crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III Problem- Byzantium didn’t like that because after centuries of withstanding Barbarian (Western) invasions, now a Barbarian becomes the emperor. Result- Eastern (Eastern Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic) Churches grew further apart.
Why They Grew Apart 1.Geography 2.Ignorance (For the most part, patriarchs couldn’t read Latin and popes couldn’t read Greek.) 3.Different theologies 4.Patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope disliked each other
The Great Schism In 1054, when Patriarch Michael brought up old issues and attacked Roman Catholic practice, it led to them excommunicating each other and the official split of the two churches known as the East-West Schism or the Great Schism.
The First Crusade Pope Urban II: preached a sermon in 1095 which sparked the start of the Crusades -many peasants and nobles joined as they were promised complete forgiveness of their sins and also hoped to gain land/wealth from East Crusades- series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from Muslim control -with support of Byzantine emperor, the first crusade was successful -crusaders had conquered along the Mediterranean coast and set up fortified castles to secure the new territories
The Second and Third Crusades Second (1147-1149)- tried to take over Damascus but failed because Muslims regrouped 1187: Muslim troops led by Saladin reclaimed Jerusalem Third (1189-1192)- Crusaders gained Cyrus and Acre while Saladin allowed Christian pilgrimage and Jews to Jerusalem
Fourth Crusade -1202: goal was Egypt, but turned to Constantinople instead when they were promised lots of money -1204: sacked Constantinople, spoils divided between the Venetians, French, and Crusaders
Impact of Crusades -important economic impact -Italian cities prospered and replaced Byzantines and Muslims as the merchant traders of the Mediterranean
Feudalism in Western Europe -first appeared in France and Germany before spreading throughout Europe -relationship between vassal and the lord with mutual obligations -the lord provides aid and protection to the vassals in return for their loyalty or some form of other payment -vassals also gave land to other vassals, specifically the serfs (peasants)
Fall of Constantinople -fell to the Ottoman Turks -the walls of Constantinople was thought to be impenetrable yet the Turks were able to batter down the walls with the use of artillery -this made people scared because they could no longer feel safe or hide behind the walls of their city -the city was the capital of a major branch of Christianity so the fall also caused people to feel their identity taken over -the prices of exotic goods such as porcelain, silk, and spices greatly increased -caused Europe to search for alternate maritime trade routes to avoid the Turks and to find a direct route to spices