5 Select Methods, Media and Materials The ASSURE Model - Basic Instructional Design Model for Online Instruction:Analyze LearnersState Learning Objectives (or Outcomes)Select Methods, Media and MaterialsUtilize Method, Media and MaterialsRequired Learner ParticipationEvaluation and Revise
6 Analyze LearnersGood instructors prepare course materials with their learners in mind.Identify learners and the contexts/environments in which they will be learning.Analyze your audience based on the following:General characteristics.Specific entry competencies – knowledge, skills, and attitudes about the topic at hand.Learning style. In online learning situations, self-direction on the part of the learner is especially critical.
7 Logical-Mathematical Verbal-LinguisticFocus thinking on language: speaking, writing, reading, listeningLogical-MathematicalReasoning & thinking: inductive and deductive logic, numeration, abstract patternsBodily-KinestheticInvolves physical movement and knowledge of the body; usually large muscle activity;NaturalistLoves the outdoors, appreciates flora and fauna species, natureNinePatternsOfThinkingInterpersonalOriented toward social or group relationshipMusicalResponds to acoustic patterns, sounds, rhythms, and tempoVisual-SpatialOrganizes things spatially; thinks in images; imaginativeIntrapersonalIntuitive & introspective: self-knowledge (not introverted but reserved)Existentialist Learn in the context of where humankind stands in the “big Picture” of existence(Howard Gardner – Harvard University & Rev 2004)
8 Multiple Intelligence Resources There are 9 Multiple Intelligences now. Read more about it here:Determine your Learning Style by taking this Learning Style Inventory: Print Out Survey: Online Survey:
9 Analyze Learners True or False Students who enroll in an online course will be comfortable with the technology they need to use.
10 Analyze Learners True or False Students will enter the course with an appropriate degree of literacy.
11 Analyze LearnersTrue or FalseStudent access to technology will vary.
12 Analyze Learners True or False Students know how to find resources on the World Wide Web.
13 Analyze Context Performance setting Transfer Don’t be limited by being online
14 Analyze Technology Ask your students Ask the Help Desk Don’t get carried away by “zippies”Explore alternatives
15 State Learning Objectives State in terms of what the learner will be able to think, do, or feel as a result of the instruction.Outcomes guide all subsequent teaching activities.Measurable, succinct, and use specific action verbs and simple (not compound) sentences.Include conditions of “performance” and the minimum degree of acceptable performanceFocus on what the learner needs to know, not the instructor!We will be using the ABCD Model to write objectives.
16 ABCD Objectives Format AudienceAudience, Who are your Students?BehaviorBehavior to be demonstratedConditionConditions under which the behavior will be observedDegreeDegree to which the learned skills are to be mastered
17 Examples of ABCD Format Given all the basic shapes - cone, cylinder, cube, and sphere (condition), each second-semester geometry student (audience) will identify (behavior) orally each shape (degree).Using tape recorded readings of the tryout sessions for the school play (condition), students in the drama class (audience) will select (behavior) the proper voice for each character as indicated in the drama text (degree).
18 Writing Objectives Activity 1. Increase the student's ability to visually identify and note white cells on a differential Know what effects symbolism has in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" Students will type text using home key methods. (Keyboarding class) 4. Find articles on the Internet to use in methods research paper Student will enjoy working in groups.
19 #1 Increase the student's ability to visually identify and note white cells on a differential. Poor: Increase the student's ability to visually identify and note white cells on a differential.Better: By the conclusion of this lesson, the student will identify and label correctly all white cells on differentials using a microscope and photographs of white cells found on the CD ROM that accompanied the assigned text book.
20 #2 Know what effects symbolism has in the short story "Young Goodman Brown". Poor: Know what effects symbolism has in the short story "Young Goodman Brown".Better: The student will identify and discuss the effects of symbolism in the short story “Young Goodman Brown” using their text, and PC with word processing software in one hour.
21 #3 Students will type text using home key methods. (Keyboarding class) Poor: Students will type text using home key methods. ( Keyboarding class)Better: After four weeks of keyboard instruction, students will type four paragraphs of text in five minutes using the home key method. Three errors or less will be considered as meeting the objective.
22 #4. Find articles on the Internet to use in methods research paper. Poor: Find articles on the Internet to use in methods research paper.Better: Given the criteria of what research articles are, the student will use the Internet and a search engine to locate and select three articles for a research paper.
23 #5. Student will enjoy working in groups. Poor: Student will enjoy working in groups.Better: Given the opportunity to work in groups during several sessions of the class, the students will demonstrate an increase in positive attitude towards working in groups, as measured by an attitudinal survey given by the end of the class.
24 Select Methods, Media & Materials Crucial!First, choose the best instructional methods. (Lecture, Group work, Field Trip)Then select available media and materials, modify existing media and materials, or design new ones. (images, photos, multimedia, video, audio.)
25 MERLOTMERLOT is a free and open resource designed primarily for faculty and students of higher education. Links to online learning materials are collected here along with annotations such as peer reviews and assignments.
27 Utilize Methods, Media & Materials Plan how to use materials.Media and materials always need to be previewed and tested ahead of time.Especially in new courses and when new technologies are used.
28 Helpful TipsWhen using Blackboard course management system, post a welcome announcement with descriptions of all navigation buttons and encourage exploration.Make sure all hyperlinks are current and working. Post Discussion Board questions ahead of time.Check to be sure Chat Room is working properly and you are familiar with the controls.Post Discussion Board questions ahead of time.Check all posted/added multimedia files to be sure they are loading and working appropriately.Update your faculty information (i.e., office hours)
29 Tips ContinuedMake sure Syllabus is updated (i.e., new grading scale, etc.)Prepare test and quizzes ahead of time.Be sure you have blocked off time on your daily calendar to provide timely feedback to student , discussion board postings, and grading of assignments. You are their guide and facilitator and your presence should be felt.Save text and announcement text in a word processing document so that you can reuse and revise this information from semester to semester rather than composing from scratch. This is a time saver!
30 Require Learner Participation There are three major types of interaction in distance learning and the best online instruction facilitates all three types (Moore & Kearsley, 1996) :Learner-to-InstructorLearner-to-LearnerLearner-to-ContentPrompt feedback is a must!Collaborative learning can be helpful in creating the feeling of a virtual learning community.
31 Guidelines for Discussion I will "listen" to others respectfully.Online learning is devoid of physical cues that often support communication. I will strive to utilize language that is thoughtful, respectful, and collegial when communicating with my fellow students.When I disagree with someone, I will critique his or her ideas in a respectful and constructive manner.I will direct my comments to my fellow students, rather than to the professor.I will try to understand other people's behavior and perspectives rather than simply criticizing them.I will avoid stereotypes and humor that are disparaging of others.I will intervene politely if I notice people are being disrespectful or unfair to others.
32 Tip #32 Expect learners to contribute to class discussions. Make your expectations clearEncourage divergent opinionsWatch out for the pitfall of judging quantity not quality of postingsHannah, D. E. , Glowachki-Dudka, M. and Conceicao-Runlee, S. (2000)147 Practical Tips for Teachng Online Groups- Essentials of Web-Based Education
33 Tip #33 Expect learners to teach others and facilitate the experience. Student as leadersAsk students to bring in personal/professional experiences
34 Tip #36 Expect learners to provide timely, meaningful feedback to you and their fellow learners. Beginning online learners need structure to keep them on task.Don’t be afraid to set due dates.
35 Tip #38 Expect learners to “listen” to others. Make sure all are participating in the conversation and not just one person up there on a soap box.
36 Tip #39 Expect learners to communicate by addressing each other, not just you. Don’t try to control the conversation.Don’t need to respond to every posting, in fact, your absolutely shouldn’t.
37 Lead by Example Model the behavior you want to see Introduction Respond to student introductionsWhen responding, include a student’s relevant remarks in quotes
38 Provide space for social interaction Unrelated to course topicLet students “socialize” before classExamples: Tea Room, Coffee Shop, After Hours
39 Online Conflict Wait View it as a positive development May want to suggest students wait 24 hours before responding to a post they perceive as negativeExtreme problems should be dealt with outside the public forum
40 ChatAssessmentVirtual office hoursBe aware of time differences
41 Evaluate and ReviseAll instruction, no matter how well designed, should be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and quality.Ask question like:Did the learner meet the objectives?Did the instructional strategies and media assist the learners in meeting intended outcomes?If not, why not.Formative and summative evaluations can both be helpful in revising instruction for the next time around.
42 Evaluate and Revise Continued How will you determine whether or not your students met the lessons objectives?How will you determine the media effectiveness?How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective?
43 What is Good Online Course Design? Kim N. StevensonElizabeth City State UniversityLoretta B. PowersElizabeth City State University