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Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics

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1 Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics
Alinka Lépine-Szily Instituto de Física-USP São Paulo, Brazil Two-Day Symposium on International Nuclear Science of the IUPAP Working Group WG.9 TRIUMF on July 2-4, 2010

2 CHART OF SANTIAGO The “Association of Latin American Nuclear Physics and Applications” (ALANPA) was formed in Santiago, Chile on Dec. 19, 2009, by representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. In Spanish is called “Asociación Latino Americana de Física Nuclear y Aplicaciones” ALAFNA In Portuguese is called “Associação Latino Americana de Física Nuclear e Aplicações” ALAFNA Chairs of ALANPA: Andrés Kreiner (Argentina) Alinka Lépine-Szily (Brazil)

3 Steering Committee (SC) of ALANPA is formed by the 15 original founders:
Ricardo Alarcon (Arizona State Univ., USA) Hugo Arellano (U. of Chile, Chile) Haydn Barros (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela) Maria Ester Brandan (UNAM, Mexico) Roelof Bijker (UNAM, Mexico) Laszlo Sajo Bohus (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela) Fernando Cristancho (UNal, Colombia) Paulo Gomes (U. Fed. Fluminense, Brazil) Carlos Granja(Inst.Exp.Appl.Phys. Czech Tech.U. Czech Rep.) Andrés Kreiner (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina) Alinka Lépine-Szily (USP, Brazil) Rubens Lichtenthäler (USP, Brazil) Modesto Montoya (Inst. Per. Em. Nucl., Peru) Roberto Morales (U. of Chile, Chile) Alberto Pacheco (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina)

4 Objectives of ALANPA (ALAFNA)
To strengthen ties among the Latin American Communities doing nuclear research and applications to foster collaborations and promotion of activities, To educate the scientific community and the general public through the promotion of nuclear physics and the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, To do periodic overall assessments of nuclear science in Latin America in the context of world wide activities, and To discuss at a multi-national level future planning of nuclear science activities in Latin America

5 Role of the Steering Committee:
-establishment of ALANPA governance rules -divulgation of ALANPA in the scientific community -divulgation of ALANPA within governments of Latin America with interest in nuclear science and applications ALANPA homepage will be installed in the very near future on the website of the next “Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications” july 18-22,2011, Quito, Ecuador

6 Latin American Symposia on Nuclear Physics and Applications
Caracas, Venezuela San Andrés, Colombia Ciudad de México, México Santos, Brazil Iguazu, Argentina Cuzco, Peru Santiago, Chile Quito, Ecuador Scope: the dissemination of the major theoretical and experimental advances in the field of nuclear science and its applications. The main topics to be covered are: Nuclear Structure and Reactions, Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Cosmic Rays, Hadron Structure and Phases of Nuclear Matter, Tests of Fundamental Symmetries and Properties of Neutrinos, Nuclear Instrumentation and Facilities: Radiation Detectors and Sources, and Applications in Medicine (Biomedical Imaging, Radiotherapy),Art/Archeology, Energy, Space and International Security.


8 General Informations on the status of
Nuclear Physics in Argentina Brazil Chile Mexico Venezuela Ecuador Colombia Peru

9 Nuclear Physics and Applications in Argentina and Cooperation in Latin America
A.J.Kreiner1,2,3. 1Departamento de Física, CNEA, Atomic Energy Commission Arg. 2Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad de San Martin, Arg. 3CONICET (National Research Council), Argentina. Felicitar, agradecer, joined forces with LBL, with their experience on ESQ’s and ours on Tandem’s.

Institutions and locations National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) 1.1 Buenos Aires (Centro Atomico Constituyentes), Physics Department (currently Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio TANDAR) 1.2 Prov. Buenos Aires (Centro Atomico Ezeiza) 1.3 Bariloche (Centro Atomico Bariloche) 2. School of Science and Technology-University of San Martin (ECyT-UNSAM) Prov. Buenos Aires, Migueletes Campus. 3. Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences- University of Buenos Aires (FCEyN-UBA) 3.1 Buenos Aires Faculty of Sciences- National University of La Plata 5. Favaloro University

11 1.1 Research Programs The main experimental and theoretical research lines related to Nuclear Physics and its applications are the following: Low-energy nuclear physics: Nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, collective nuclear excitations and giant resonances, break-up reactions and their influence on fusion reactions involving weakly bound nuclei; fusion barrier distributions. High-energy nuclear physics: Hadronic models based on QCD. Phase structure of strong interactions.

12 1.1 Research Programs (Cont.)
Applied Nuclear Physics: A result of basic research activities has been the application of various experimental nuclear physics techniques to other fields of knowledge: biomedicine, radiobiology, environmental science, material science, nuclear astrophysics. Techniques developed and available: Ion Beam Analysis (HIRBS, PIXE, NRA,..); External Beam Irradiations, Neutron Production, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Proton irradiations to qualify satellite components (solar cells and electronic circuits). In the biomedical area a project is worth mentioning related to accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), including the development of a high intensity low-energy proton accelerator and a SPECT tomograph. Recently this program has widened to start with the development of accelerator technology aimed at nuclear transmutation of highly radiotoxic waste coming from the Argentine power reactors (30 people). A heavy ion microbeam facility for the study of biological and physical problems with high spatial resolution has ben operational for several years. High aspect ratio micromachining is available. PIXE and other IBA’s. Astroparticle physics (Auger projects and extensions). Number of scientists: ~80

13 Major facility: TANDAR 20 MV Tandem (Pelletron)
Facility's major experimental instrumentation and its capabilities: - QDD magnetic spectrometer. - Microbeam facility (beam spots of about 1μ2) with high resolution X-ray detection. - External beam irradiation facility with on-line dose determination. - Heavy-ion identification based on a time-of-flight facility (start and stop signals derived from microchannel plates) followed by a Bragg spectrometer or solid state detectors. - 30-inch diameter multipurpose scattering chamber. - Irradiation chamber for the simulation of outer-space environmental conditions. Ion implanter. Number of actual, active users of the facility: 51 Number of a) permanent staff, as scientific, technical, and administrative staff, employed by the lab: 46 and b) temporary staff (including graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on the facility’s payroll): 12

14 20 MV Tandem at CNEA Buenos Aires.
Tandar accelerator tower with SF6 storage spheres. 20 MV Tandem at CNEA Buenos Aires.

15 Other CNEA centers 1.2 EZEIZA Atomic Center: Isotope production (40 MeV proton Cyclotron). Nuclear metrology (radiation measurements, standards for gammas, betas, neutrons). Reactor physics (RA-3 research reactor). BNCT with reactors. 60Co irradiators. Isotope production. (150 people). 1.3 BARILOCHE Atomic Center: Neutron physics (electron LINAC for neutron production thru photonuclear reactions, 10 people). Reactor physics and engineering RA-6 (School of Nuclear Engineering). Clinical trials in BNCT (4). Auger physics (4). 1.4 School of Nuclear medicine (Mendoza). PET center in association with National Cancer Institute (Buenos Aires).

16 Other Institutions 2. ECYT-UNSAM
Medical physics (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, imaging modalities; 5 + many CNEA) 3. FCEyN-UBA Statistical mechanics applications to nuclear physics (theory, 2). Involvement in CERN experiments (1). 4. La Plata Nuclear structure and weak interactions (theory, 3 people). Auger physics (6). 5.Favaloro Engineering in Medical Physics (several CNEA).

BRAZIL Alinka Lépine-Szily Instituto de Física-USP São Paulo, Brazil

18 Number of scientists and graduate students in
Nuclear Physics in Brasil in 2010 In 2005 (under-estimated) 96 25 170 291 2005: 63 universities 2009: 131 universities ( 1999: 2.7 millions of students, 6.9% 2004: millions of students 2009: millions of students, 13.9% SP

19 Research Programs: Low-energy nuclear physics:T,E
Low energy reaction and structure studies with stable and radioactive beams, break-up, fusion, nuclear astrophysical reactions, Gamma-spectrosopy, nuclear structure with light-ion transfer reactions. T: 3-body description of halo nuclei, fusion models for superheavies, weak-interaction for r-process High-energy nuclear physics: Theory: Hadronic models in QCD, Phases of nuclear matter, nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars), Experimental: Auger project STAR collaboration at RHIC, Alice collaboration at LHC PHENIX collaboration at RHIC, Atlas collab. at LHC th 118th Intn Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs 8th International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs

20 Research programs: Applied Nuclear Physics: Radiation Physics
Material analysis using ionic beams PIXE, RBS, external beam, ERDA, PIGE (8MV Pelletron tandem, 1.7MV Pelletron tandem USP) Atomic Mass Spectrometry (USP, UFF) Instrumentation for detectors and electronics (IPEN) Gamma and X-ray spectrometry for material analysis. Dating, art and archeology Medical Physics Radioisotope production (67Ga,201Tl,111In,18F,123I, IPEN)) 3D Imaging detectors, dosimetry

21 Accelerators in Brazil (not dedicated to NP)
LNLS- Synchrotron Radiation Light Source, Campinas 1.37 GeV,250mA The only light source in Latin-America Research in material science, biology, medical science, chemistry users Cyclotrons for isotope production at CNEN, hospitals. Research Reactor at CNEN-IPEN of 5MW

22 Major Facility for Nuclear Physics research
State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Major Facility for Nuclear Physics research 8 MV Pelletron Tandem University of São Paulo: Institute of Physics 8 MV tandem 3-5 MeV.A RIBRAS Local facility: Very important for graduate student training, 56 MS and PhD thesis in last 10 years

23 Facility´s major experimental instrumentation and capabilities:
Radioactive Ion Beam Brasil (RIBRAS) 2 superconducting solenoids can select and focus radioactive beams produced by transfer reactions B=6.5T. 2. Two large position sensitive neutron detectors (Neutron wall) 3. Gamma-ray+charged particle spectrometer (SACI-PERERE) 4. Enge split-pole spectrometer 5. Multi-purpose scattering chamber. 6. Large scattering chamber

24 Present beams at RIBRAS
Ion primary beam energy(MeV) reaction production rate (/ 1A of primary beam) 6He Be(7Li,6He) p/s 6He Be(7Li,6He) p/s 8Li Be(7Li,8Li) p/s 7Be He(6Li,7Be) x10+5 p/s 7Be He(7Li,7Be) x10+5 p/s 8B He(6Li,8B) (?) present primary beam 6,7Li intensities ~ 300 nAe Elastic, inelastic scattering, transfer reactions, reaction cross section, break-up cross section, astrophysical S-factors, induced by radioactive beams

25 Highlights of the SP. Pelletron Lab.
Elastic scattering of light halo projectile:6He Total reaction cross-section: 6He+27Al, 6He+51V, 6He+120Sn σRred

26 Production of light elements in primordial nucleosynthesis:
Primordial Nucleosynthesis  without the participation of the unstable nuclei Primordial Nucleosynthesis  with the participation of the unstable nuclei: p-rich: 8B, 9C,11C n-rich:8Li,9Li, 11Be etc

27 Non-homogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis:
8Li(4He,n)11B, bridges de A=8 gap 8Li(p,4He)5He main reaction which destroys the 8Li. Was measured at RIBRAS with 8Li beam, thick CH2 target, inverse kinematics, excitation function, from Ecm=0.4 to 2.7 MeV R-matrix calculations for the 9Be resonances, including 0.605, and 1.77 MeV P. Descouvemont private communication

28 São Paulo state (80% experimental, 35% theoretical
Main Institutions: São Paulo state (80% experimental, 35% theoretical activity) São Paulo USP E, T research in low, high energy nuclear physics IFT/UNESP Hadronic models in QCD, 3-body models of halo nuclei T ITA 3-body models of halo nuclei , relativistic nuclear structure T Unicamp; Auger project, RHIC, LHC E IPEN: gamma spectrosopy, instrumentation and applications E 2. Rio de Janeiro UFRJ Theoretical studies of Nuclear Reactions, Hadron Physics T UFF Low energy Nuclear Reactions T,E AMS E CBPF Hadron Physics, fusion models for SHE, r-process T 3. Southern states, Paraná, UEL, applications, Gamma and X-ray spectrometry for material analysis E Santa Catarina, UFSC nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars) T Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, FURG hadron physics using QCD T

29 International Collaborations:
Experimental: 1.Strong collaboration between Pelletron (USP) -Tandar Argentina and UFF (Niteroi, Brasil) Pro-Sul CNPq-CONICET 2. STAR, PHENIX collaboration at RHIC 3. Alice collaboration at LHC 5. Collaborations: FAIR, Legnaro, Catania, Sevilla, Madrid, Lisboa, U. Notre Dame, CNS-U.Tokyo, GANIL, ANU Theory: U.La Plata (Arg.), Cuba, U. Coimbra, Tandar, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Oxford Univ., Univ. Tennessee, Univ. Sydney, Univ. Aarhus. Difficulties: Small groups, Heavy travel expenses, little money for graduate students

30 Nuclear Physics in Chile
Roberto Morales Universidad de Chile

31 1.- ¿ Dónde se hace Física Nuclear, ciudades, laboratorios, universidades?
Sólo en Santiago hay actividad en Física Nuclear 2. Instalaciones experimentales. En la Universidad de Chile, UCH. Acelerador Van de Graaff MeV Sistemas de espectroscopía gamma, rayos X, alfa En la Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN Un reactor de investigación de 5 MW. En La Reina. Operativo Activación neutrónica Producción de radioisótopos, Tc-99m, I-131 Espectroscopia gamma Laboratorio de plasma Laboratorio y Servicio de Dosimetría Ciclotrón de 18 MeV para F-18 Un reactor de investigación de 10 MW. En Lo Aguirre. No opera Irradiador gamma Prompt gamma

32 3.- Recursos humanos.-´ Investigadores Universidad de Chile Arellano, Hugo Dr. UCH Cancino, Simón M.Cs. UCH Dinator, Maria I. M.Cs. UCH * Morales, J. Roberto Dr. UCH Miranda, Pedro Dr. UCH

P.A. Miranda, M. A. Chesta, S. A. Cancino, J. R. Morales, M. I. Dinator, J. A. Wachter and C. Tenreiro Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 248 (2006)

34 Colaboradores Robert Flocchini. UC Davis, California, U.S.A. Javier Miranda. UNAM, México. Andrea Seelenfreund. Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano Rafael Correa. Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana Sergio Montes. Universidad de Santiago Claudio Tenreiro. Universidad de Talca Mario Ávila. Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Raúl Morales. Fac. Ciencias, Universidad de Chile Margarita Préndez. Fac. Ciencias Química y Farmacéutica. U. de Chile Diego Salazar. Fac. Ciencias Sociales. U. de Chile Raúl Muñoz. Fac. de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas. U. de Chile

35 Nuclear Physics in Mexico
Roelof Bijker and María Ester Brandan UNAM

36 Where? UNAM, DF, Instituto de Física, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Fac de Ciencias ININ and Univ. Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca Cinvestav, DF y Mérida Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla Universidad Michoacana San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa

37 Mexican Physics Society (SMF)
Radiation Physics Medical Physics Nuclear Physics Particles and Fields Cosmic rays

38 How many? About 20 (10) in basic research and its instrumentation
About 30 (10) in applied nuclear physics and its instrumentation Graduate students: About 50

39 Subjects: Basic science
Nuclear structure (symmetries, cluster models, nuclear masses, double b decay) T Hadronic physics (LE QCD, quark models) T Cosmic rays (Pyramid of the Sun, HAWC) E Neutron physics, fundamental symmetries E International collaborations: T, E ALICE (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, Cinvestav, BUAP, UAS) Auger (ICNUNAM) RIB ORNL, Notre Dame (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM) LANL (IFUNAM)

40 Subjects: Applied science
Medical physics (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, School of Medicine UNAM, UAZ) E Radiation physics E RBS, PIXE, other techniques

41 Experimental facilities
6 MV Tandem (ININ) 0.7 and 5.5 MV Van de Graaf and 3 MV Pelletron (IFUNAM) Instrumentation laboratories Pyramid of the Sun and HAWC (IFUNAM) Detector lab (ICNUNAM) Instrumentation labs (Puebla and UMSNH)

42 Nuclear Physics and Applications in Ecuador
Institutions / activity Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), Quito Dept. de Física y Astronomía Dept. de Ciencias Nucleares Bulk irradiations (electron, gamma) Atomic absorption (X-rays, UV) Fluorescence and mass analysis linac Co irradiator Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito Particle physics (D0 Fermilab) „National Bureau of Control, License and Studies of Nuclear Sciences“ (former Atomic Energy Commission) Dependency of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy Laboratories (e.g. Dosimeter and radiation monitor calibration). Regulations, safeguards Nuclear techniques (element analysis) Oncology Society SOLCA, Quito Medical Physics Radiotherapy (electron, photon) commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g) Hospitals (oncology), Quito, Guayaquil Radiotherapy treatments (electron, photon) commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g)

43 Nuclear Physics in VENEZUELA

44 Universidad de los Andes
LASER Spectrometer δ18 OIEA Universidad de los Andes High Energy Group (3 Ph.D) Dr. Luis Nuñez Hydrogeology Group (2 Ph.D) Dr. Hervé Jegat I.V.I.C. 60-Co Irradiation Facility. Ing. Paolo Traversa Secondary Calibration Lab. Dr. Lila Carrizalez Medical Physics Masters Courses Official National Training Courses in Radioprotection Environmental Radioactivity Universidad Central de Venezuela Medical Physics Masters Courses. Dr. Rafael Martín (20-25 students / year) Lab. Applications Nuclear Tech. In Industry. Dr. Héctor Constan. (L.Cintillation) Ministery of Energy Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, National Nuclear Authority. Dr. Héctor Constan Regularions & Permissions. Training (Through IAEA) Monitoring for evaluations and permissions (Gamma Spectroscopy). Univ. Centro Occ. Lizandro Alvarado TXRF – Chemistry Department. Dra. Lué Meru Marco Hospitals & Private Centres Ciclotron (18F), PET, LINAC, Gamma Ch., MRI, CT, etc. Dra. Aisa Manzo

45 Universidad Simon Bolivar
( Last Five years Researchers 8 Prof. L. Sajo-Bohus Prof. E. Greaves Dr. P. Nemeth Prof. J. Liendo Prof. D. Palacios Prof. H. Barros Prof. M. Bernal Prof. F. Rodríguez New Professionals 29 Ph.D. Physics 2 M.Sc. Physics 2 M.Sc. Chemistry 2 M.Sc. Eng. Electronic 1 B.Sc. Physics: 12 B.Sc. Chemistry 5 B.Sc. Biology 1 Electric & Electronic Eng. 6 Postgraduate abroad 12 Students 8 Ph.D. 5 M.Sc. 6 B.Sc. 5 Techniques and devices Ion Implanter (0,4 MeV) Neutron Source (Cf) Alpha (Si) & Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe) TXRF & DRX TLD and SSNTD Co & Cs intense sources BGO, NaI(Tl) and Cherenkov Abroad NAA Ion Beam Analysis AMS, ICPMS & TIMS OIEA Support Staff 3 2 Tech. + 1 Adm.



48 Física nuclear y aplicaciones en el Perú
El Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear (IPEN) cuenta con un reactor de investigación de 10 MW, en el cual se produce radioisótopos para medicina y se realiza análisis químicos por activación neutrónica. Se tiene también una facilidad de neutrografía. El IPEN en colaboración con la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería se realiza simulación de experimentos de fisión y experimentos de física de reactores. Un grupo de la Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú trabaja en el experimento ALICE con el grupo de México en el CERN.

49 Conclusions: Most countries in the region have small activity in basic Nuclear Physics research. Mostly radiation and medical applications. Very small number of scientists. Exceptions: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico Region has no large scale facilities in NP and no plans. Small support from funding agencies even for maintenance of existing facilities.

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