Presentation on theme: "Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W"— Presentation transcript:
1 Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W. Zolar April 5, Presented to: Central Carolina Community College Sanford, NC
2 About the Presenter: Marc Zolar Marc is an instructional design consultant and certified distancelearning mentor. He has a broad professional backgroundspanning the corporate, government and academic sectors.The list of organizations Mr. Zolar has worked with on learningand development programs includes: America Online, AmericanResearch Institute, AT&T, Central Carolina Community College,Florida State University, IBM, U.S. Department of Defense, UnitedState Marine Corps, University of North Carolina at Wilmington,Verizon, Walden University.He holds a Master’s degree in instructional design anddevelopment and is active in professional organizations in thefield as a writer and speaker.Marc can be reached at
3 Today’s Topics Constructivism and Adult Learning Principles Lecture vs. FacilitationBlended Learning approachesGiving students ownership in the learning processAccommodating different learning stylesReflective activity
4 Today’s Approach This room as a Community of Learning. Presentation of content and ideas for open discussion.Collect Best Practices.
5 Sharing your thoughts?What is your guiding philosophy about teaching?
6 Topic 1Constructivism And Adult Learning Principles
7 What is Constructivism? “Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.“(Source:
8 Principles of Constructivism Learning is a search for meaningLearning occurs in a contextInstruction is tailored to learners’ mental modelsConstructing knowledge is purpose of learning (not “right” vs. “wrong”)(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
9 Impact on Curriculum Less standardized curriculum Customized to connect to learner’s prior knowledgeEmphasizes hands-on problem- solving(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
10 Impact on InstructionTeacher as facilitator/guide rather than authorityFocus on making connections between factsExperimentation, open-ended questions, extensive reflection, dialogue among students(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
11 Impact on Assessment Ongoing assessment during instruction De-emphasizes traditional grading methodsSelf-assessment, learner articulates growth through projects and reflection(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
12 Constructivist Strategies Inquiry learningDiscovery learningSituational learningProblem-based learningCognitive Apprenticeship(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
13 Constructivist Words and Phrases ContextAuthenticMultiple perspectivesLearner-centeredPrior knowledgeHigher-order thinkingMeaningful connectionsSocial negotiation(Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)
14 Discussion Question/Activity #1 List some constructivist strategies that you currently use, or could easily implement in your classroom.
15 What is Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)? “Andragogy is a theory developed by Malcolm Knowles which attempts to describe how adults learn. His hypothesis was that adult learning could not follow the principles of traditional pedagogy in which teachers are responsible for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned and when it will be learned. Because adults in general are more self-directed, they should take control of their own learning. The definition of an adult, however, is not strictly related to age. Knowles (1980) himself, defined adulthood as "the point at which individuals perceive themselves to be essentially self-directing". “(Source:
16 How are Adult Learners Different? They are self-directedThey are goal orientedThey are practical and problem-solversThey have accumulated life experiences.(Source: )
17 Implications of Andragogy for Instruction Learners should know why they are studying something.Instruction should be task-oriented, and it should take into account the wide range of different backgrounds of learners.Learners should be able to relate what is being studied to their personal/professional experiences.Learners should be motivated and ready to learn.Learners should be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.Instruction should be problem-centered rather than content-oriented.(Source: )
18 Applying the Principles of Andragogy Learner-centered classes will stimulate dialogue and knowledge construction.Learners will benefit from a scaffolding approach to learning where the teacher provides more support in the early stages of the course .Teachers should see themselves as facilitators and co-learners.Teachers should recognize that learners are individuals with different life experiences and learning preferences. Some adult learners will still prefer the traditional pedagogical approach to teaching and learning.Teachers should gradually try to push learners away from their comfort zone in the direction of a deeper approach to learning. (Source: )
19 Ten Practical Tips for Teachers of Adult LearnersAdults prefer instructors who:1. Are content experts 6. Consider learner interests2. Provide relevance 7. Individualize instruction3. Are well organized 8. Use active learning4. Don’t waste time 9. Encourage self-directed learning5. Provide clear learning goals 10. Are supportive and non-threatening(Source: )
20 Discussion Question/Activity #2 Describe one new activity you could add to one of your courses that is consistent with adult learning theory.
21 Topic 2 Lecture vs. Facilitation "It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry It is a very grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be promoted by means of coercion and a sense of duty."Albert Einstein
22 Lecture: “Sage on the Stage” At the root of the lecture model lies the notion that knowledge resides in the head of the teacher, and the student learns this knowledge by listening to the teacher.(Source:
23 Characteristics of Effective/Ineffective Lectures Characteristics of the EffectiveLecture Characteristics of the Ineffective Lecture Educator-student interaction 100% educator talk, with limited or no interactionTwo-way communication One-way communicationEducator-student questions Few if any questions (educator or student) Shared responsibility for active learning Student depends on educator for all information Small group, problem-solving activities No student activities Variety of supporting media No supporting mediaLimited note taking required (studentshave copies of lecture notes) Extensive note taking requiredSource:
24 Lecture ComponentsSilberman (1990) suggests five approaches to maximizing students’ understanding and retention during lectures. These can be used to help ensure the effective transfer of knowledge.Use an opening summary. At the beginning of the lecture, present major points and conclusions to help students organize their listening. Present key terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids. Offer examples. When possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture. Use analogies. If possible, make a comparison between the content of the lecture and knowledge the students already have. Use visual backups. Use a variety of media to enable students to see as well as hear what is being said.Source:
25 Lecture or Not to Lecture? Lecture is appropriate when:Lecture is not appropriate when:Disseminating information quickly to a large audiencePresenting complex, detailed or abstract information Presenting new information before using other media or activities (e.g., a brief lecture before playing a videotape)Dealing with information concerning feelings and attitudesProviding an overview of a topic Training in psychomotor (hands-on) skillsArousing interest in a topicTeaching high-level cognitive skills (e.g., synthesis and evaluation) Source:
26 Discussion Question/Activity #3 How much do you rely on lecture as an instructional strategy? How do you determine whether or not to use this strategy?
27 Facilitation: “Guide on the Side” Learners learn best when given control of the experience, under the guidance and direction of a skilled instructor.(Source:
28 What is Facilitation?Facilitation is the process of enabling groups to work cooperatively and effectively(http://www.infodesign.com.au/usability/facilitation.html)
29 What is a facilitator’s job? “Quite simply, a facilitator'sjob is to make it easier forthe group to do its work.By providing non-directiveleadership, the facilitatorhelps the group arrive atthe decisions that are itstask. The role is one ofassistance and guidance,not control.”(Source: Ward-Green and Hill Associates at:
30 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation 1. Address students’ current mode of thinking and learning in class:Many students believe they are supposed to:to have the right answers;to meet explicit or implicit expectations of authority figures;not to ask questions or share information;not to experiment or to make mistakes; and/ornot to challenge the status quo.These types of student fears/misconceptions need to be addressed directly and honestly by the instructor. Students must be made to feel that your classroom is a “safe” place to explore new learning.Source:
31 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation 2. Manage class dynamicsAs a facilitator, a faculty member will have to balance the following sets of opposing factors that influence how a class should be conducted:Structure: How rigidly or flexibly should the lesson be run? Pacing: How rapidly or leisurely should the group be pushed to achieve learning?Group Interaction: How do group members relate to the facilitator and to each other?Focus: Which is more important to impart, all course content as planned or the process of learning?Concern: Should energy be directed at individual or group needs?Control: To what extent are students empowered to perform in class?Source:
32 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation 3. Establish core valuesThe teacher-as-facilitator should have a set of core values to guide his/her actions (Argyris & Schon, 1974). These core values will prevent the facilitator from behaving defensively when strong differences in views erupt in class or when students conduct themselves in an unacceptable manner.Source:
33 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation 4. CommunicateIt is paramount for a facilitator to listen to not only what is said, but also what is not said during a discussion. The facilitator has toBe alert and spot when and how individual students within the class express confusion or strong feelings.Practice empathy so as to quickly respond to any doubts or questions students may have.To encourage dialogue in class, both students and the faculty member have to suspend their own assumptions and show respect for each other in class: individual pride and ego must make way for a sincere interest in learning from one another.Source:
34 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation 5. Sculpt students’ thinkingFor effective facilitation, facilitator’s probing or questioning skills, and the ability to integrate or summarize various viewpoints is important. In this manner, different viewpoints can be generated and presented, and all in the class can achieve a fuller understanding of what is taught or learned.The aim of ‘sculpting’ is not to impose one’s view on the students, but to help them mould their new understanding of the concepts learned to their existing body of knowledge and views (if any).Source:
35 Characteristics of Effective Facilitators Effective facilitation does not happen overnight. It requires commitment and practice on the part ofthe instructor or trainer. Aker (1976) studied effective facilitators in detail and believed they wereindividuals who exhibited the following characteristics:Have great empathy--i.e., try to see things as seen by their learners.Consistently use reward, seldom if ever use punishment, and never ridicule.Have a deep sense of their responsibility, enjoy their work, and like people.Feel secure in their own abilities, yet believe that they can do better.Have a profound respect for the dignity and worth of each individual and accept their fellow learners as they are without reservation.Have a keen sense of fairness and objectivity in relating to others.Are willing to accept or try out new things and ideas and avoid drawing premature conclusions.Have high levels of patience.Recognize the uniqueness and strengths of each individual and build upon such strengths.Are sensitive to the needs, fears, problems and goals of their fellow learners.Reflect on their experiences and attempt to analyze them in terms of success and failure.Are humble in regard to their role and avoid the use of power which is assumed by some educators.Do not pretend to have the answers and enjoy learning along with others.Are continuously expanding their range of interest.Are committed to and involved in their own lifelong learning (p. 3).Source:
36 Discussion Question/Activity #4 List some core values you might establish in your classroom for facilitated exercises.
38 What is Blended Learning? Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to teaching or to educational processes which involve the deployment of a diversity of methods and resources or to learning experiences which are derived from more than one kind of information source.Examples include combining technology-based materials and traditional print materials, group and individual study, structured pace study and self-paced study, tutorial and coaching.Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blended-learning
39 Why Use Blended Learning? Helps to accommodate different learning stylesExpands learning beyond the classroomGives students additional ownership in the learning processCreates a community of learning
40 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes Option 1: Asynchronous Discussion Boards in Blackboard:Reinforces material covered in class and asks student to use higher-level thinking skills in answering questions.Is a relatively low pressure strategy allowing students to carefully ponder assigned questions and prepare a thoughtful response before posting.The exchange of ideas, including your insights, quickly creates an energy that can fuel your class and help create a sense of community among your learners.
41 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes Option 2: Synchronous Chats in Blackboard:More active participants in your class will embrace this method.Real-time exchange of ideas is not only exciting, but also teaches the participants to assimilate information quickly and to communicate their points more succinctly.Managing a synchronous chat experience requires the instructor to know and enforce some basic guidelines.
42 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes Option 3: Web-based Research AssignmentsThe Internet is a powerful and free resource that has relevance to every conceivable content domain.Encouraging some guided discovery learning using sites identified by the instructor as a starting point (e.g. Webquests, situated learning sites, etc).Allow student to explore resources of their choosing, but provide guidelines for citation and validation of sources.
43 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes Option 4: Online learning weeksSkip a few face-to-face sessions during the semester and instead require students to complete classwork online.Include assignments that require students to engage in different kinds of activities. For instance, you might ask your students to complete a Web-based research project, and then join a small group of their classmates for a synchronous chat session followed by an asynchronous discussion posting to share their conclusions.When you see your students again in the classroom, you can lead a lively discussion about their distance learning experience in addition to what they learned in new content.
44 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes Option 5: Distance-based collaborative projects for small groupsAssign students into small groups and ask them to work collaboratively at a distance. Successful online collaboration will foster discipline and responsibility.Ask your students to use the tools at their disposal to socially negotiate a method for completing the collaborative assignment with their peers, and then execute it.Have each group present their results including the method they used to work together.
45 Discussion Question/Activity #5 Have you used any of these online components? If yes, what were the results. If no, which appeal to you (if any)? Why?
46 Topic 4 Giving students ownership in the learning process It is not what you teach, but what they learn, that matters.
47 Student Ownership in Learning Current educational research says puts increasing responsibility on the student for truly meaningful learning to occur. Promoting student ownership in the learning process is consistent with constructivist approaches to learning and adult learning theory.Some strategies to do this are:Learning ContractsSocial negotiation of assignments and/or evaluation criteriaCollaborative workPresentations
48 Strategy 1: Learning Contracts Student name and detailsThis is pretty obviousCourse name and levelSo is this, but the course level is important, because that sets the expectations of the piece of work: the level criteria should be set out clearly somewhere—perhaps in the handbook.Outcomes to be addressedThey may not be expressed as outcomes, but this is where the student puts the course requirements about the piece of work.Form of submissionIt could be a project, a portfolio, a videotape of practice, an object the student has made, a computer program ... If the tutor signs the form, she is agreeing that a submission of this type will be acceptableATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching: Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available:
49 Learning Contracts, continued Outline of submissionThis is the crunchy bit: this is where the student sets out her intentions for the submission. Much of the rest of the form may be governed by course regulations, but this has to be original. It is a statement of the student's solution to the problem, "How am I going to produce evidence that I can meet these outcomes?"Resources and assistanceThis section is also the place to clarify complicating issues, suchas collaborative work in a small group, and how marks are tobe apportionedSignaturesThese are what make the magic work: the contract is notworth anything until it has been agreed and signed by bothstudent and tutor. Usually the student keeps the main copy tosubmit with the completed work, but the tutor can keep one onfile for security purposes if necessary. The tutor's signaturemakes explicit the implicit bargain above. She is agreeing thatif the student delivers what is promised, credit will be awarded.
50 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria One very effective way to promote student ownership is to give them input over the evaluation process for assignments. For instance, you might conduct an activity to create a rubric for a class project.Why should students create their own rubrics?“Reading or listening to a teacher's expectations is very different for a student than creating and accomplishing his or her own goals. The purpose of inviting students to develop their own evaluation structure is to improve their motivation, interest, and performance in the project. As students' overall participation in school increases, they are likely to excel in it.”(Source:
51 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria Once students are involved in project-based learning:Students are motivated intrinsically to design their own assessment toolOnce students have invested a significant amount of time, effort, and energy into a project, they naturally want to participate in deciding how it will be evaluated.The knowledge gained through experience in a particular field of study provides the foundation for creating a useful rubric.(Source:
52 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria Example Rubric: Bridge Building ProjectIn this case, the class was divided into teams. Each group decided on their own "Company Name" as well as who would fill the following department head positions: project director, architect, carpenter, transportation chief, and accountant. All students were required to help out in every department. Each group received $1.5 million (hypothetically) to purchase land and supplies.Students were asked to think about what parts of the design, construction, budget, and building journal were the most significant to the overall bridge quality. The class came up with four different rubrics(Source:
53 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria The budget rubric is provided as an example:Budget Criteria4 Excellent3 Good2 Fair1 UnacceptableLegibilityCompletely legible.The budget shows two or three marks or stains, but is legible.The budget is barely legible, with numerous marks or stains.The budget is messy and illegible.Supplies & Materials AccountabilityCompletely accounted for.Five-sixths of the materials and labor are accounted for.Two-thirds of the materials and labor are accounted for.Materials and labor are not accounted for.Ledger ActivityAll daily activities are recorded.Five-sixths of the daily balance of funds is indicated.Two-thirds of the daily balance of funds is indicated.The daily balance of funds is nonexistent.Ledger BalanceBalance is completely accurate.The daily balance has two or three inaccuracies.The daily fund record has more than three inaccuracies.The daily fund balance is inaccurate.(Source:
54 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work What is collaboration and why should students do it?Collaboration is the social process that supports learners' development of capabilities in which they learn to do without assistance things that they could initially do only with assistance.By collaborating, students can develop their potential for learning. Specifically, students can learn to approach and solve new problems so that they develop the capability to solve problems that do not exist at the moment of learning.Source:
55 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work What is required for students to collaborate?To collaborate, students need:The task, e.g., a problem or project, the completion of which requires conceptual change in studentsA group of students with problem-solving or project-developing capabilities distributed among themMeaningful assistance for needed capabilities not distributed among group membersTime to interact with each otherGuidance for developing group processes and assessing their progressSource:
56 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work How do I get students to collaborate?To entice students to collaborate, it is helpful to:Shift course situations and reward structures to encourage students to view interactions with peers as indispensable learning resources.Assign tasks that are suitable for collaboration, i.e., tasks that require the integration rather than just the accumulation of ideas.Make the collaborative aspects of a course sufficiently large that students cannot safely ignore them.Stage the first collaborative activities in ways that build swift trust among group members so they can get to work on the task to attain useful results quickly, which encourages subsequent collaboration.Have student groups make the results of their collaboration visible to other student groups,Source:
57 Strategy 4: Portfolio-based assessment What is a portfolio?A portfolio is a collection of work used asproof, as evidence. It demonstrates:“Look what I have done, look what I cando, I have made these things, these aremy products.”Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:
58 Why create a portfolio?To provide a holistic perspective of your students learning journeyTo document your students mastery of specific goals and objectives of the course through the selection and presentation of select pieces of “evidence” or “data.”To serve as a tool for learning, to be built and reflected upon in a continuous manner as you proceed in your professional development.Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:
59 Implementing Portfolios Introduce the basic structure/requirements at the beginning of the semesterEncourage student input in negotiating some componentsProvide recommendations and examplesRequire a portfolio outline prior to assembling
60 What a Portfolio is NOT Keep in mind this is not a scrapbook. It should be a learning tool thatincludes select pieces ofevidence, along with writtenreflections that explain, forexample, why you chose eachartifact, in what course objectivesgrowth took place, what obstaclesyou overcame, and what goalsyou have for continued growth inthis particular area. As youassess your own learning, thereshould be a strong connectionthat links your growth to overallgoals of the course.Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:
61 Discussion Question/Activity #6 What methods do you currently use to promote student ownership in the learning process?
63 Theory on Learning Styles There are many theories and models onlearning styles. Some theorists to explore are:Gardner (Multiple Intelligences)McCarthy (4MAT)Dunn and Dunn (Cognitive Style Theory)Shindler (Paragon Learning Style Inventory)
64 A Few Basic Ideas No two learners learn in the identical way. An enriched environment for one learner is not necessarily enriched for another. No learner is all one learning styleThe instructor’s learning style has an impact
65 Some Familiar Styles Auditory Visual Tactual Kinesthetic (Source:
66 Auditory Learners Find it easy to learn by listening Enjoy dialogues and discussionDo well talking through problemsAre easily distracted by noise and other auditory inputsStudents who are NOT auditory learners often struggle during lectures to concentrate or understand what is being said by the instructor(Source:
67 Strategies for Auditory Learners Incorporate audio tapes, Internet content including audio, and discussion activities along with lectures.Tape record lectures and make them available for student use.Encourage auditory learners touse tape recorders to record lectures, and their own verbal notes.join a study group.Talk through solutions to technical/math content and record it in their own words.
68 Visual LearnersLike to see demonstrations and written descriptions of concepts Often use lists to organize notes and recognize words by sightHave active imaginationsAre easily distracted by movement or action Are generally unaware of noiseStudent who are NOT visual learners often read a page and realize they don’t know what they just read. They often have difficulty with reading assignments and overhead notes.(Source:
69 Strategies for Visual Learners Use diagrams, illustrations, InternetUse tables and charts with color coding to present text-based informationEncourage visual learners to re-write notes, color codes with highlighters, create study aides containing key information from text books and classroom assignments.
70 Tactual Learners Like to take notes during a lecture or when reading Often draw or doodle to remember thingsDo well with hands-on projects (demonstraton, labs, etc.)Students who are NOT tactual learners generally do not take notes, and struggle to keep up during hands-on exercises.(Source:
71 Strategies for Tactual Learners Use hands-on activities (labs, models, writing assignments)Incorporate assignments using computersEncourage tactual learners to:create flashcardsDevise symbols or icons to help classify information
72 Kinesthetic LearnersDo well when they are involved or active in the learning activity Have high energy levelsOften don’t retain information presented during lectureDon’t do as well when asked to sit and readStudents who are NOT kinesthetic learners prefer to sit and watch rather than get involved in activities.(Source:
73 Strategies for Kinesthetic Learners Create large diagrams wall or floorHuge floor/wall puzzlesLarge Maps on wall or floorTeam-based activities using chart paper posted on wall to scoreOverheads projected on wall so students can move to them for games.ActingInterviewingPeer coachingSkitsRole Playing(Source:
74 Plan for Different Learning Styles Every class represents the spectrum of different learning styles.Incorporate this consideration into your instructional design process (e.g. Include activities relevant for all four styles when developing lesson plans)Assess the possible bias of your own learning style when planning instructional approaches.Encourage students to learn more about their own learning style.Allow students to have input in creating/revising/choosing course activities.
75 Discussion Question/Activity #7 What is the biggest obstacle you face in attempting to address multiple learning styles in the classroom?
77 Reflective ActivityA variety of activities can be used to facilitate student reflection.Student journalsStudent presentations (portfolios)InterviewsAsynchronous threaded discussionsClassroom discussions
78 Reflective ActivityWhat does reflect activity do to stimulate learning?Challenges students to make connections between experiences and conceptsEncourages students to contemplate the process in addition to the contentMakes the student the determiner of learningImproves critical thinking and writing skills.
79 Reflective Activity Examples of reflective questions: Discuss the key differences between the roles of online instructor and face-to-face instructor. What aspects of effective online teaching do you feel pose the biggest challenge for you given your own personal style and attributes as a teacher?Discuss your own personal experience with online learning to date. This can include participation as learner and/or instructor. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the online learning you participated in? Highlight specific aspects that were particularly effective or ineffective. What do you think is the biggest obstacle to success in an online learning environment?Consider your own characteristics as an adult learner. What are some strategies that could be used in an online course to maximize the value of the experience for you? What strategies might frustrate you? Discuss any modifications to your own behavior that you might need to make in order to become an effective distance learner
81 ResourcesFacilitation: A Different Pedagogy?; CDTLink at:Pedicases at:Learning Styles at:Life Tips: Homework Tips, at:Explorations in Learning and Instruction: Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database at:Learning and Teaching Website, James Atherton at:CDT Link at:Teachervision.com at:Center for Teaching and Learning Website at Georgia State University. Available at:Instructional Design Knowledge Base at George Mason University at:
82 Resources, continued.UMUC-Verizon Virtual Resource Site for Teaching with Technology:Web Teacher at:Concept to Classroom at:Multimedia Cases (Situated Learning), Mable Kinzie UVA at:Moodle (freeware course management system) at:Big Dog’s ISD page at:Yahoo Web Beginner’s Guides at:Distance Education Clearinghouse at:http://www.uwex.edu/disted/home.htmlUniversity of Hawaii, Faculty Development Teaching Tips Index at:
83 ReferencesATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching: Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available: Accessed: 1 April 2006Blended-learning, Wikipedia at: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blended-learningInstitute of Learning, University of Hull at:Kelly, Diana K., Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners, Dublin Institute of Technology, at:Life Tips: Homework Tips, at: Retrieved April 2, 2006.NC Quest Program Website, University of North Carolina at Wilmington at:Student Generated Rubrics, Pearson Education Network, teachervision.com at: Retrieved April 2, 2006.Sullivan, Richards; McIntosh, Noel. ReproLine, The Reading Room at: Retrieved April 1, 2006.
84 ReferencesTLTC Website, Center for Teaching and Learning, Georgia State University: Enabling student collaboaration at: Retrieved April 3, 2006.Ward-Green and Hill Associates at: Retrieved March 31, 2006.What is Constructivism, funderstanding.com at:Wilson, Cynthia, Learning Styles Website at: Retrieved April 1, 2006.Yoong, Shu Moo. Facilitation: A different pedagogy?. Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning, CDTLink. March 2002, 6:1 at:Zolar, M. (2004) Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)