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Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W

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1 Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W
Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W. Zolar April 5, Presented to: Central Carolina Community College Sanford, NC

2 About the Presenter: Marc Zolar
Marc is an instructional design consultant and certified distance learning mentor. He has a broad professional background spanning the corporate, government and academic sectors. The list of organizations Mr. Zolar has worked with on learning and development programs includes: America Online, American Research Institute, AT&T, Central Carolina Community College, Florida State University, IBM, U.S. Department of Defense, United State Marine Corps, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Verizon, Walden University. He holds a Master’s degree in instructional design and development and is active in professional organizations in the field as a writer and speaker. Marc can be reached at

3 Today’s Topics Constructivism and Adult Learning Principles
Lecture vs. Facilitation Blended Learning approaches Giving students ownership in the learning process Accommodating different learning styles Reflective activity

4 Today’s Approach This room as a Community of Learning.
Presentation of content and ideas for open discussion. Collect Best Practices.

5 Sharing your thoughts? What is your guiding philosophy about teaching?

6 Topic 1 Constructivism And Adult Learning Principles

7 What is Constructivism?
“Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.“ (Source:

8 Principles of Constructivism
Learning is a search for meaning Learning occurs in a context Instruction is tailored to learners’ mental models Constructing knowledge is purpose of learning (not “right” vs. “wrong”) (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

9 Impact on Curriculum Less standardized curriculum
Customized to connect to learner’s prior knowledge Emphasizes hands-on problem- solving (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

10 Impact on Instruction Teacher as facilitator/guide rather than authority Focus on making connections between facts Experimentation, open-ended questions, extensive reflection, dialogue among students (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

11 Impact on Assessment Ongoing assessment during instruction
De-emphasizes traditional grading methods Self-assessment, learner articulates growth through projects and reflection (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

12 Constructivist Strategies
Inquiry learning Discovery learning Situational learning Problem-based learning Cognitive Apprenticeship (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

13 Constructivist Words and Phrases
Context Authentic Multiple perspectives Learner-centered Prior knowledge Higher-order thinking Meaningful connections Social negotiation (Source: Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

14 Discussion Question/Activity #1
List some constructivist strategies that you currently use, or could easily implement in your classroom.

15 What is Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)?
“Andragogy is a theory developed by Malcolm Knowles which attempts to describe how adults learn. His hypothesis was that adult learning could not follow the principles of traditional pedagogy in which teachers are responsible for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned and when it will be learned. Because adults in general are more self-directed, they should take control of their own learning. The definition of an adult, however, is not strictly related to age. Knowles (1980) himself, defined adulthood as "the point at which individuals perceive themselves to be essentially self-directing". “ (Source:

16 How are Adult Learners Different?
They are self-directed They are goal oriented They are practical and problem-solvers They have accumulated life experiences. (Source: )

17 Implications of Andragogy for Instruction
Learners should know why they are studying something. Instruction should be task-oriented, and it should take into account the wide range of different backgrounds of learners. Learners should be able to relate what is being studied to their personal/professional experiences. Learners should be motivated and ready to learn. Learners should be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. Instruction should be problem-centered rather than content-oriented. (Source: )

18 Applying the Principles of Andragogy
Learner-centered classes will stimulate dialogue and knowledge construction. Learners will benefit from a scaffolding approach to learning where the teacher provides more support in the early stages of the course . Teachers should see themselves as facilitators and co-learners. Teachers should recognize that learners are individuals with different life experiences and learning preferences. Some adult learners will still prefer the traditional pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. Teachers should gradually try to push learners away from their comfort zone in the direction of a deeper approach to learning. (Source: )

19 Ten Practical Tips for Teachers
of Adult Learners Adults prefer instructors who: 1. Are content experts 6. Consider learner interests 2. Provide relevance 7. Individualize instruction 3. Are well organized 8. Use active learning 4. Don’t waste time 9. Encourage self-directed learning 5. Provide clear learning goals 10. Are supportive and non-threatening (Source: )

20 Discussion Question/Activity #2
Describe one new activity you could add to one of your courses that is consistent with adult learning theory.

21 Topic 2 Lecture vs. Facilitation
"It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry It is a very grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be promoted by means of coercion and a sense of duty." Albert Einstein

22 Lecture: “Sage on the Stage”
At the root of the lecture model lies the notion that knowledge resides in the head of the teacher, and the student learns this knowledge by listening to the teacher. (Source:

23 Characteristics of Effective/Ineffective Lectures
Characteristics of the Effective Lecture  Characteristics of the Ineffective Lecture  Educator-student interaction   100% educator talk, with limited or no interaction Two-way communication   One-way communication Educator-student questions  Few if any questions (educator or student)  Shared responsibility for active learning  Student depends on educator for all information  Small group, problem-solving activities  No student activities  Variety of supporting media   No supporting media Limited note taking required (students have copies of lecture notes)  Extensive note taking required Source:

24 Lecture Components Silberman (1990) suggests five approaches to maximizing students’ understanding and retention during lectures. These can be used to help ensure the effective transfer of knowledge. Use an opening summary. At the beginning of the lecture, present major points and conclusions to help students organize their listening.  Present key terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids.  Offer examples. When possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture.  Use analogies. If possible, make a comparison between the content of the lecture and knowledge the students already have.  Use visual backups. Use a variety of media to enable students to see as well as hear what is being said. Source:

25 Lecture or Not to Lecture?
Lecture is appropriate when: Lecture is not appropriate when: Disseminating information quickly to a large audience Presenting complex, detailed or abstract information  Presenting new information before using other media or activities (e.g., a brief lecture before playing a videotape) Dealing with information concerning feelings and attitudes Providing an overview of a topic  Training in psychomotor (hands-on) skills Arousing interest in a topic Teaching high-level cognitive skills (e.g., synthesis and evaluation)  Source:

26 Discussion Question/Activity #3
How much do you rely on lecture as an instructional strategy? How do you determine whether or not to use this strategy?

27 Facilitation: “Guide on the Side”
Learners learn best when given control of the experience, under the guidance and direction of a skilled instructor. (Source:

28 What is Facilitation? Facilitation is the process of enabling groups to work cooperatively and effectively (

29 What is a facilitator’s job?
“Quite simply, a facilitator's job is to make it easier for the group to do its work. By providing non-directive leadership, the facilitator helps the group arrive at the decisions that are its task. The role is one of assistance and guidance, not control.” (Source: Ward-Green and Hill Associates at:

30 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
1. Address students’ current mode of thinking and learning in class: Many students believe they are supposed to: to have the right answers; to meet explicit or implicit expectations of authority figures; not to ask questions or share information; not to experiment or to make mistakes; and/or not to challenge the status quo. These types of student fears/misconceptions need to be addressed directly and honestly by the instructor. Students must be made to feel that your classroom is a “safe” place to explore new learning. Source:

31 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
2. Manage class dynamics As a facilitator, a faculty member will have to balance the following sets of opposing factors that influence how a class should be conducted: Structure: How rigidly or flexibly should the lesson be run? Pacing: How rapidly or leisurely should the group be pushed to achieve learning? Group Interaction: How do group members relate to the facilitator and to each other? Focus: Which is more important to impart, all course content as planned or the process of learning? Concern: Should energy be directed at individual or group needs? Control: To what extent are students empowered to perform in class? Source:

32 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
3. Establish core values The teacher-as-facilitator should have a set of core values to guide his/her actions (Argyris & Schon, 1974). These core values will prevent the facilitator from behaving defensively when strong differences in views erupt in class or when students conduct themselves in an unacceptable manner. Source:

33 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
4. Communicate It is paramount for a facilitator to listen to not only what is said, but also what is not said during a discussion. The facilitator has to Be alert and spot when and how individual students within the class express confusion or strong feelings. Practice empathy so as to quickly respond to any doubts or questions students may have. To encourage dialogue in class, both students and the faculty member have to suspend their own assumptions and show respect for each other in class: individual pride and ego must make way for a sincere interest in learning from one another. Source:

34 Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
5. Sculpt students’ thinking For effective facilitation, facilitator’s probing or questioning skills, and the ability to integrate or summarize various viewpoints is important. In this manner, different viewpoints can be generated and presented, and all in the class can achieve a fuller understanding of what is taught or learned. The aim of ‘sculpting’ is not to impose one’s view on the students, but to help them mould their new understanding of the concepts learned to their existing body of knowledge and views (if any). Source:

35 Characteristics of Effective Facilitators
Effective facilitation does not happen overnight. It requires commitment and practice on the part of the instructor or trainer. Aker (1976) studied effective facilitators in detail and believed they were individuals who exhibited the following characteristics: Have great empathy--i.e., try to see things as seen by their learners. Consistently use reward, seldom if ever use punishment, and never ridicule. Have a deep sense of their responsibility, enjoy their work, and like people. Feel secure in their own abilities, yet believe that they can do better. Have a profound respect for the dignity and worth of each individual and accept their fellow learners as they are without reservation. Have a keen sense of fairness and objectivity in relating to others. Are willing to accept or try out new things and ideas and avoid drawing premature conclusions. Have high levels of patience. Recognize the uniqueness and strengths of each individual and build upon such strengths. Are sensitive to the needs, fears, problems and goals of their fellow learners. Reflect on their experiences and attempt to analyze them in terms of success and failure. Are humble in regard to their role and avoid the use of power which is assumed by some educators. Do not pretend to have the answers and enjoy learning along with others. Are continuously expanding their range of interest. Are committed to and involved in their own lifelong learning (p. 3). Source:

36 Discussion Question/Activity #4
List some core values you might establish in your classroom for facilitated exercises.

37 Topic 3 Blended-Learning Approaches

38 What is Blended Learning?
Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to teaching or to educational processes which involve the deployment of a diversity of methods and resources or to learning experiences which are derived from more than one kind of information source. Examples include combining technology-based materials and traditional print materials, group and individual study, structured pace study and self-paced study, tutorial and coaching. Source:

39 Why Use Blended Learning?
Helps to accommodate different learning styles Expands learning beyond the classroom Gives students additional ownership in the learning process Creates a community of learning

40 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
Option 1: Asynchronous Discussion Boards in Blackboard: Reinforces material covered in class and asks student to use higher-level thinking skills in answering questions. Is a relatively low pressure strategy allowing students to carefully ponder assigned questions and prepare a thoughtful response before posting. The exchange of ideas, including your insights, quickly creates an energy that can fuel your class and help create a sense of community among your learners.

41 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
Option 2: Synchronous Chats in Blackboard: More active participants in your class will embrace this method. Real-time exchange of ideas is not only exciting, but also teaches the participants to assimilate information quickly and to communicate their points more succinctly. Managing a synchronous chat experience requires the instructor to know and enforce some basic guidelines.

42 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
Option 3: Web-based Research Assignments The Internet is a powerful and free resource that has relevance to every conceivable content domain. Encouraging some guided discovery learning using sites identified by the instructor as a starting point (e.g. Webquests, situated learning sites, etc). Allow student to explore resources of their choosing, but provide guidelines for citation and validation of sources.

43 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
Option 4: Online learning weeks Skip a few face-to-face sessions during the semester and instead require students to complete classwork online. Include assignments that require students to engage in different kinds of activities. For instance, you might ask your students to complete a Web-based research project, and then join a small group of their classmates for a synchronous chat session followed by an asynchronous discussion posting to share their conclusions. When you see your students again in the classroom, you can lead a lively discussion about their distance learning experience in addition to what they learned in new content.

44 Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
Option 5: Distance-based collaborative projects for small groups Assign students into small groups and ask them to work collaboratively at a distance. Successful online collaboration will foster discipline and responsibility. Ask your students to use the tools at their disposal to socially negotiate a method for completing the collaborative assignment with their peers, and then execute it. Have each group present their results including the method they used to work together.

45 Discussion Question/Activity #5
Have you used any of these online components? If yes, what were the results. If no, which appeal to you (if any)? Why?

46 Topic 4 Giving students ownership in the learning process
It is not what you teach, but what they learn, that matters.

47 Student Ownership in Learning
Current educational research says puts increasing responsibility on the student for truly meaningful learning to occur. Promoting student ownership in the learning process is consistent with constructivist approaches to learning and adult learning theory. Some strategies to do this are: Learning Contracts Social negotiation of assignments and/or evaluation criteria Collaborative work Presentations

48 Strategy 1: Learning Contracts
Student name and details This is pretty obvious Course name and level So is this, but the course level is important, because that sets the expectations of the piece of work: the level criteria should be set out clearly somewhere—perhaps in the handbook. Outcomes to be addressed They may not be expressed as outcomes, but this is where the student puts the course requirements about the piece of work. Form of submission It could be a project, a portfolio, a videotape of practice, an object the student has made, a computer program ... If the tutor signs the form, she is agreeing that a submission of this type will be acceptable ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching:  Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available:

49 Learning Contracts, continued
Outline of submission This is the crunchy bit: this is where the student sets out her intentions for the submission. Much of the rest of the form may be governed by course regulations, but this has to be original. It is a statement of the student's solution to the problem, "How am I going to produce evidence that I can meet these outcomes?" Resources and assistance This section is also the place to clarify complicating issues, such as collaborative work in a small group, and how marks are to be apportioned Signatures These are what make the magic work: the contract is not worth anything until it has been agreed and signed by both student and tutor. Usually the student keeps the main copy to submit with the completed work, but the tutor can keep one on file for security purposes if necessary. The tutor's signature makes explicit the implicit bargain above. She is agreeing that if the student delivers what is promised, credit will be awarded.

50 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria
One very effective way to promote student ownership is to give them input over the evaluation process for assignments. For instance, you might conduct an activity to create a rubric for a class project. Why should students create their own rubrics? “Reading or listening to a teacher's expectations is very different for a student than creating and accomplishing his or her own goals. The purpose of inviting students to develop their own evaluation structure is to improve their motivation, interest, and performance in the project. As students' overall participation in school increases, they are likely to excel in it.” (Source:

51 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria
Once students are involved in project-based learning: Students are motivated intrinsically to design their own assessment tool Once students have invested a significant amount of time, effort, and energy into a project, they naturally want to participate in deciding how it will be evaluated. The knowledge gained through experience in a particular field of study provides the foundation for creating a useful rubric. (Source:

52 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria
Example Rubric: Bridge Building Project In this case, the class was divided into teams. Each group decided on their own "Company Name" as well as who would fill the following department head positions: project director, architect, carpenter, transportation chief, and accountant. All students were required to help out in every department. Each group received $1.5 million (hypothetically) to purchase land and supplies. Students were asked to think about what parts of the design, construction, budget, and building journal were the most significant to the overall bridge quality. The class came up with four different rubrics (Source:

53 Strategy 2: Social Negotiation of Criteria
The budget rubric is provided as an example: Budget Criteria 4 Excellent 3 Good 2 Fair 1 Unacceptable Legibility Completely legible. The budget shows two or three marks or stains, but is legible. The budget is barely legible, with numerous marks or stains. The budget is messy and illegible. Supplies & Materials Accountability Completely accounted for. Five-sixths of the materials and labor are accounted for. Two-thirds of the materials and labor are accounted for. Materials and labor are not accounted for. Ledger Activity All daily activities are recorded. Five-sixths of the daily balance of funds is indicated. Two-thirds of the daily balance of funds is indicated. The daily balance of funds is nonexistent. Ledger Balance Balance is completely accurate. The daily balance has two or three inaccuracies. The daily fund record has more than three inaccuracies. The daily fund balance is inaccurate. (Source:

54 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work
What is collaboration and why should students do it? Collaboration is the social process that supports learners' development of capabilities in which they learn to do without assistance things that they could initially do only with assistance. By collaborating, students can develop their potential for learning. Specifically, students can learn to approach and solve new problems so that they develop the capability to solve problems that do not exist at the moment of learning. Source:

55 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work
What is required for students to collaborate? To collaborate, students need: The task, e.g., a problem or project, the completion of which requires conceptual change in students A group of students with problem-solving or project-developing capabilities distributed among them Meaningful assistance for needed capabilities not distributed among group members Time to interact with each other Guidance for developing group processes and assessing their progress Source:

56 Strategy 3: Collaborative Work
How do I get students to collaborate? To entice students to collaborate, it is helpful to: Shift course situations and reward structures to encourage students to view interactions with peers as indispensable learning resources. Assign tasks that are suitable for collaboration, i.e., tasks that require the integration rather than just the accumulation of ideas. Make the collaborative aspects of a course sufficiently large that students cannot safely ignore them. Stage the first collaborative activities in ways that build swift trust among group members so they can get to work on the task to attain useful results quickly, which encourages subsequent collaboration. Have student groups make the results of their collaboration visible to other student groups, Source:

57 Strategy 4: Portfolio-based assessment
What is a portfolio? A portfolio is a collection of work used as proof, as evidence. It demonstrates: “Look what I have done, look what I can do, I have made these things, these are my products.” Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:

58 Why create a portfolio? To provide a holistic perspective of your students learning journey To document your students mastery of specific goals and objectives of the course through the selection and presentation of select pieces of “evidence” or “data.” To serve as a tool for learning, to be built and reflected upon in a continuous manner as you proceed in your professional development. Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:

59 Implementing Portfolios
Introduce the basic structure/requirements at the beginning of the semester Encourage student input in negotiating some components Provide recommendations and examples Require a portfolio outline prior to assembling

60 What a Portfolio is NOT Keep in mind this is not a scrapbook.
It should be a learning tool that includes select pieces of evidence, along with written reflections that explain, for example, why you chose each artifact, in what course objectives growth took place, what obstacles you overcame, and what goals you have for continued growth in this particular area. As you assess your own learning, there should be a strong connection that links your growth to overall goals of the course. Source: NC Quest Program, UNCW at:

61 Discussion Question/Activity #6
What methods do you currently use to promote student ownership in the learning process?

62 Topic 5 Accommodating different learning styles

63 Theory on Learning Styles
There are many theories and models on learning styles. Some theorists to explore are: Gardner (Multiple Intelligences) McCarthy (4MAT) Dunn and Dunn (Cognitive Style Theory) Shindler (Paragon Learning Style Inventory)

64 A Few Basic Ideas No two learners learn in the identical way.
An enriched environment for one learner is not necessarily enriched for another.  No learner is all one learning style The instructor’s learning style has an impact

65 Some Familiar Styles Auditory Visual Tactual Kinesthetic

66 Auditory Learners Find it easy to learn by listening
Enjoy dialogues and discussion Do well talking through problems Are easily distracted by noise and other auditory inputs Students who are NOT auditory learners often struggle during lectures to concentrate or understand what is being said by the instructor (Source:

67 Strategies for Auditory Learners
Incorporate audio tapes, Internet content including audio, and discussion activities along with lectures. Tape record lectures and make them available for student use. Encourage auditory learners to use tape recorders to record lectures, and their own verbal notes. join a study group. Talk through solutions to technical/math content and record it in their own words.

68 Visual Learners Like to see demonstrations and written descriptions of concepts  Often use lists to organize notes and recognize words by sight Have active imaginations Are easily distracted by movement or action Are generally unaware of noise Student who are NOT visual learners often read a page and realize they don’t know what they just read. They often have difficulty with reading assignments and overhead notes. (Source:

69 Strategies for Visual Learners
Use diagrams, illustrations, Internet Use tables and charts with color coding to present text-based information Encourage visual learners to re-write notes, color codes with highlighters, create study aides containing key information from text books and classroom assignments.

70 Tactual Learners Like to take notes during a lecture or when reading
Often draw or doodle to remember things Do well with hands-on projects (demonstraton, labs, etc.) Students who are NOT tactual learners generally do not take notes, and struggle to keep up during hands-on exercises. (Source:

71 Strategies for Tactual Learners
Use hands-on activities (labs, models, writing assignments) Incorporate assignments using computers Encourage tactual learners to: create flashcards Devise symbols or icons to help classify information

72 Kinesthetic Learners Do well when they are involved or active in the learning activity  Have high energy levels Often don’t retain information presented during lecture Don’t do as well when asked to sit and read Students who are NOT kinesthetic learners prefer to sit and watch rather than get involved in activities. (Source:

73 Strategies for Kinesthetic Learners
Create large diagrams wall or floor Huge floor/wall puzzles Large Maps on wall or floor Team-based activities using chart paper posted on wall to score Overheads projected on wall so students can move to them for games. Acting Interviewing Peer coaching Skits Role Playing (Source:

74 Plan for Different Learning Styles
Every class represents the spectrum of different learning styles. Incorporate this consideration into your instructional design process (e.g. Include activities relevant for all four styles when developing lesson plans) Assess the possible bias of your own learning style when planning instructional approaches. Encourage students to learn more about their own learning style. Allow students to have input in creating/revising/choosing course activities.

75 Discussion Question/Activity #7
What is the biggest obstacle you face in attempting to address multiple learning styles in the classroom?

76 Topic 6 Reflective Activity

77 Reflective Activity A variety of activities can be used to facilitate student reflection. Student journals Student presentations (portfolios) Interviews Asynchronous threaded discussions Classroom discussions

78 Reflective Activity What does reflect activity do to stimulate learning? Challenges students to make connections between experiences and concepts Encourages students to contemplate the process in addition to the content Makes the student the determiner of learning Improves critical thinking and writing skills.

79 Reflective Activity Examples of reflective questions:
Discuss the key differences between the roles of online instructor and face-to-face instructor. What aspects of effective online teaching do you feel pose the biggest challenge for you given your own personal style and attributes as a teacher? Discuss your own personal experience with online learning to date. This can include participation as learner and/or instructor. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the online learning you participated in? Highlight specific aspects that were particularly effective or ineffective. What do you think is the biggest obstacle to success in an online learning environment? Consider your own characteristics as an adult learner. What are some strategies that could be used in an online course to maximize the value of the experience for you? What strategies might frustrate you? Discuss any modifications to your own behavior that you might need to make in order to become an effective distance learner

80 Questions and Comments
The floor is yours!

81 Resources Facilitation: A Different Pedagogy?; CDTLink at: Pedicases at: Learning Styles at: Life Tips: Homework Tips, at: Explorations in Learning and Instruction: Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database at: Learning and Teaching Website, James Atherton at: CDT Link at: at: Center for Teaching and Learning Website at Georgia State University. Available at: Instructional Design Knowledge Base at George Mason University at:

82 Resources, continued. UMUC-Verizon Virtual Resource Site for Teaching with Technology: Web Teacher at: Concept to Classroom at: Multimedia Cases (Situated Learning), Mable Kinzie UVA at: Moodle (freeware course management system) at: Big Dog’s ISD page at: Yahoo Web Beginner’s Guides at: Distance Education Clearinghouse at: University of Hawaii, Faculty Development Teaching Tips Index at:

83 References ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching:  Learning Contracts [On-line] UK: Available: Accessed: 1 April 2006 Blended-learning, Wikipedia at: Institute of Learning, University of Hull at: Kelly, Diana K., Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners, Dublin Institute of Technology, at: Life Tips: Homework Tips, at: Retrieved April 2, 2006. NC Quest Program Website, University of North Carolina at Wilmington at: Student Generated Rubrics, Pearson Education Network, at: Retrieved April 2, 2006. Sullivan, Richards; McIntosh, Noel. ReproLine, The Reading Room at: Retrieved April 1, 2006.

84 References TLTC Website, Center for Teaching and Learning, Georgia State University: Enabling student collaboaration at: Retrieved April 3, 2006. Ward-Green and Hill Associates at: Retrieved March 31, 2006. What is Constructivism, at: Wilson, Cynthia, Learning Styles Website at: Retrieved April 1, 2006. Yoong, Shu Moo. Facilitation: A different pedagogy?. Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning, CDTLink. March 2002, 6:1 at: Zolar, M. (2004) Constructivism 101. NC Quest Program, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.)

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