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Faculty-Student Relationships

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1 Faculty-Student Relationships
Here to Stay: Faculty-Student Relationships facilitated by Ginny Hronek

2 As a result of attending this workshop, participants will be able to :
understand some factors related to why students leave college and why they stay in college explore ideas to create conditions that promote student retention identify what faculty can do to support satisfying student relationships describe how to practice dialogue, rather than monologue, to achieve greater learning and promote student-faculty relationships apply activities to promote a learner-centered environment

3 “People don’t leave companies, they leave bad bosses.”
76% do not communicate their real reason for leaving. Popular literature in the business community strongly refutes the notion that people leave jobs for higher pay and other perks. Rather, people leave primarily because of managers who do not meet their expectations or support their role development. While we are not suggesting that the world of business and academe are the same, could there be a parallel? It certainly should raise our awareness about the critical role of faculty in meeting student needs so students do not leave because of “bad faculty”. Marcus Buckingham & Curt Coffman, First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently.

4 Why do students leave college before earning a degree?
Inadequate funds Credit card addiction Too much partying Relationship trauma Family matters Poor academic preparation Distaste for lecture-paper-exam grind Lack of connection/ feel isolated Unmet expectations Lack of respect Clearly some of these factors (left column) are out of our control. Yet, factors on the right hand column warrant our attention. Interestingly, the last two items (unmet expectations and lack of respect) are the same items identified by Gallup as to why people leave a bad boss/a job.)

5 Factors affecting attrition that may be in our control
Unmet expectations Lack of connectedness Lack of respect These factors to me spell dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is damaging for the college at large and specifically for.faculty. Consider that in the marketplace, dissatisfied customers typically do not tell the vendor about their displeasure, but they tell, on the average 11 other people about the lousy service or product. Similarily, most dissatisfied employees don’t tell employers the real reason that they are leaving, which in most cases is because they had a boss who didn’t meet expectations, who didn’t connect (show support, etc) and show respect. While we don’t put institutions of higher ed in the same realm with marketplace, there are some some curious parallels to consider. We don’t regard students as “customers” in the literal sense, yet students are consumers, paying for a service and will go away if they are not satisfied. So what can we do? The immediate, evident solution is to ensure that students are satisfied in the transformation process. This is where faculty development services – workshops, observations, consultations, are of critical importance. Yet, these activities are merely nice events, with short-term results, if not grounded in a learner-centered culture of accountability.

6 Learner-Centered Culture of Accountability
An environment in which people want to work and learn What do I mean by a learner-centered culture of accountability? Let me suggest that this is a culture in which the learner is the focus and everyone is responsible and accountable for the results. That means there is not room for passing the buck, blaming or “us vs. them” conversations. We are all in this for a common purpose and committed to upholding the values of the college. A learner-centered culture of accountability is grounded in trust. Trust is the foundation that will support the development and stability of a culture.

7 Learner Centered Culture of Accountability
Focus on meeting students needs through: streamlined student delivery of services a full range of student-centered learning environments and activities accountability and responsibility for results (I need to polish this up)

8 Accountability Model*
Other-Directed Self-Directed Autonomous Authority “I Choose to” “I Have to” Belief Comply Rebel Attitude Agree Disagree Reaction Resent Resist Accept Consequences Accountabilty refers to ….being self-directed, autonomous, accepting consequences, being responsible Feeling I’m Not Responsible I am Responsible Behavior Like a Victim Get Revenge Accountable Keith Ayers, Integro Learning.

9 A learner-centered culture of accountability
is grounded in trust

10 The Elements of Trust™ Acceptance... people are respected for their contributions, differences are valued and leadership is shared Reliability... people can count on each other for support, keep their commitments and strive for excellence in what they do TM Keith Ayers, Integro Learning.

11 The Elements of Trust™ Openness... we exchange information,
discuss feelings and opinions and do not keep secrets Straightforwardness... expectations are clear, disagreements are discussed and resolved and individual performance is discussed and agreed on

12 The Elements of Trust™ Acceptance Reliability Openness
Straightforwardness Establishing a high level of trust does not happen in an all-faculty meeting or in a mission or vision statement. Rather, it is an ongoing process that requires commitment, measurement and support. It is the challenge of everyone in the college to work toward developing these elements of trust: among leaders, faculty and staff. When we role model this kind of behavior we set a standard and an expectation for our students to soar. Given this framework, I will move on to some specific examples of what we can do to continuously strengthen faculty-student relationships and thus ensure the viability of the college.

13 Culture is formed by Behaviors Beliefs Attitudes Feelings Trust
Many popular theories suggest that a culture is based initially on trust that engenders feelings of belonging and commitment. Those feelings affect attitudes that support the culture which leads to beliefs that the culture is right and good. Ultimately, the beliefs affect behaviors which are the hallmark of the culture. The culture of the college and the culture of the learning environment will certainly impact student experience. What are we doing to promote a culture of accountability?

14 of accountability: making connections
Creating a culture of accountability: making connections

15 Three critical "connections" that need to occur with students at the outset of a course:
student-instructor connection, the student-student (peer) connection student-course (subject matter) connection. Let’s first address the student-instructor connection and the student-student connection which are not mutually exclusive. As we make the effort to know our students, we may also promote the peer-to-peer connection.

16 Student Instructor Connection: Know Yourself
How are you perceived by students? Faculty spend a lot of time talking about students and vice versa. No matter what you think about your own teaching, it is the student’s perception that matters. And perception is reality. What do you know about yourself as a teacher?

17 Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia
Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you don’t know can hurt you: student’s perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03. Disorganized teaching Talk too fast/too slow Monotone Degrading students Lack of interaction Lack of enthusiasm Not available outside class, do not show up for office hours How do you rank on this list? Have you gathered student data to know?

18 Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia
Annoying Behaviors of Faculty Gonsalves, Sonia. What you don’t know can hurt you: student’s perceptions of professors annoying teaching habits: College Student Journal, 9/1/03. Unclear assignments Opinionated Reading from book or notes Keeping class overtime (disrespectful) Too much overlap with book Unfair testing/grading Talking to the board/pacing/staring at students

19 ? ? Seek regular feedback Take a pulse How I am doing?
More of / less of? Solicit feedback on a regular basis. Don’t wait until the end of the term. Then, it’s too late. Take a pulse – ask on a scale of 1-5, (5 being high) how am I doing in terms of meeting your needs, course criteria? Or, give out a sheet of paper and ask the questions above. Then, ACT on the feedback.

20 Know your students Knowing yourself is only part of the equation. You have to know your students.

21 Name tents or Name tags During the first few classes use name tents or name tags. Online students should have a photo posted.

22 Photo op First day of class bring in a digital camera and have students take photos of each other. Use photos to identify students by name in subsequent classes. Another fun idea is to have them write a story about themselves at the beginning of the semester. At the end, do the photo exercise again and write an end of semester essay.

23 Best vs. Worst Learning Experience
Reflect on a learning experience when the concept or skill really clicked, when you were motivated to learn. Identify the characteristics of the experience that supported the learning. Worst Reflect on a learning experience when the concept or skill just didn’t click., when you were not motivated to learn. Identify the characteristics of the experience that de-motivated the learning. Divide group in half. Compare experiences. Suggest as an activity with students.

24 Student-course connection: know learning styles
develop an understanding of various models that will help you understand how students learn determine strategies and techniques for including course materials in a way that takes multiple styles into account

25 Models of Learning Styles
Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorTM Kolb/McCarthy Learning Cycle Felder-Silverman Learning Styles Model Grasha-Riechmann Learning Styles VARK: - Visual, Auditory , Reading/Writing, Kinesthetic Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

26 Input Preferences VARK*
Visual Auditory Read/write Kinesthetic Taste Smell *Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guile to learning styles: See slides

27 Gardner’s Model of Multiple Intelligences 8 Pathways to the Brain Process Preferences
Inter- personal Linguistic % 7 > Kinesthetic Logical/Math Musical Intrapersonal Gardner suggests there are 8 MI and we use ALL of those. However, each of us has a preference. What is your primary and secondary preference for learning? Those preferences are likely reflected in your teaching style. So, if I tend to teach to one or two styles, what happens to students who are of other style preferences? Exercise: Tell me what you are good at doing and how you know it?  Record it on chart. That is a simple way to identify your intelligence preferences. Visual/ Spatial Naturalist Adapted from Howard Gardner’s Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, 2000.

28 Create opportunities for success!
Frame the course in positives Communicate expectations (different from “rules”) Design an early “win” Build complexity of skill development, projects Recognize & reinforce

29 Give ‘em an “A” On first day of class, ask students students to write a letter in past tense on how they earned an “A”. Periodic 1-on-1 review Giving them an “A” is adapted from Benjamin Zander in The Art of Possibility: Transforming Professional and Personal Life by Rosamund Zander and Benjamin Zander.

30 Coach rather than tell Don’t tell students something you can ask them.
“How do you think that can be accomplished?” “What may be getting in the way of achieving the goal?” “How can you do this differently?”

31 Challenge mental models
“Mental models are deeply engrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action.” - Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline

32 VII What do you see here? A Roman Numeral seven.

33 IX What do you see here? A roman numeral nine. Task: Add one line to make this a 6.

34 SIX IX6

35 What was necessary to come up with the answer?
How did the presentation of this exercise influence what you saw as a solution? How does presentation of data influence what students see?

36 Applying the Skills The Story

37 Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ?
( T , F , ? ) 1. A man appeared after the owner turned off the lights in his store. ( T , F , ? ) 2. The thief was a man. ( T , F , ? ) 3. The man who appeared did not demand money. ( T , F , ? ) 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cash register and sped away. ( T , F , ? ) 5. Someone opened a cash register. ( T , F , ? ) 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents of the cash register, he fled.

38 ( T , F , ? ) 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, the
story does not tell how much. ( T , F , ? ) 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner. ( T , F , ? ) 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves only three people: the store owner, the man who demanded money, and a police officer. ( T , F , ? ) 10. The following three things happened in the story: someone demanded money, a cash register was opened, and a man fled from the store.

39 Statements about the Story: Answer True, False, or Unknown ?
? A man appeared after the owner turned off the lights in his store. ? 2. The thief was a man. F The man who appeared did not demand money. ? 4. The store owner scooped up the contents of the cash register and sped away. T 5. Someone opened a cash register.

40 ? 6. After the man demanded money and took the contents of
the cash register, he fled. T 7. Even though there was money in the cash register, the story does not tell how much. ? 8. The thief demanded money from the store owner. ? 9. The story tells of a chain of events that involves only three people: the store owner, the man who demanded money, and a police officer. ? 10. The following three things happened in the story: someone demanded money, a cash register was opened, and a man fled from the store.

41 Climbing the ladder of Inference*
Take actions based on conclusions Draw conclusions based on assumptions Make assumptions based on meaning I add Reflective Loop our conclusions & actions affect what data we select next time Add meaning to selected data from experiences Observable data (things I see & experience)

42 Reflective Loop our conclusions & actions affect what
data we select next time

43 Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue
Reflection Advocacy Inquiry

44 Reflection: Becoming aware of your thinking
and reasoning. “How have I arrived at this?” “Explain to me how you see it that way.”

45 Why didn’t I say what I was thinking?
I. Reflection: Reflect on your thinking to deal with the tendency to resist, withdraw, insist, demand. Examine where you may be on the ladder of inference. Reflection occurs throughout the dialogue. What has led me to think / feel this way? Why didn’t I say what I was thinking? What assumptions am I making about…? What are the costs of acting this way? What are the benefits? What prevents me from acting differently?

46 Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue
Advocacy: Making your thinking and reasoning visible to others. “This is how I see it.”

47 Advocacy: Making thinking process visible (walk up the
ladder of inference slowly). What to do What to say State your assumptions, and describe the data that led to them. "Here’s what I think, and here’s how I got there. Explain your assumptions "I assumed that…." Make your reasoning explicit. "I came to this conclusion because…" Explain the context of your point of view: who will be affected by what you propose, how they will be affected and why. "To get a clear picture of what I’m talking about, imagine that you’re the person who will be affected… As you speak, try to picture the other people’s perspective on what you are saying.

48 Advocacy Publicly test your conclusions and assumptions. (continued)
What to do What to say Invite others to explore your thinking, your assumptions, and your data. "What do you think about what I just said?" or "Do you see any defects in my reasoning?" or "What can you add?" Avoid defensiveness when your thoughts or ideas are questioned. If you’re advocating something worthwhile, then it will only get stronger by being tested. Reveal where you are in your thinking. Defuse opposition. "Here’s one aspect which you might help me think through…." Listen and stay open, and encourage others to provide different views. "Do you see it differently?"

49 Not Getting “Stuck” on the Ladder: Skills for Dialogue
Inquiry: Seeking to understand others’ thinking and reasoning in a non- adversarial way. “Explain to me how you see it that way.”

50 Listen: to others without resistance to yourself – be aware of thought
to your reactions – pay attention to emotions Listening is not waiting for your turn to talk!

51 Inquiry: Ways to ask others to make their thinking process visible.
What to do What to say Find out what data others are operating from. "What leads you to conclude that?" "What data do you have for that?" "What causes you to say that?" (Be aware of tone of voice; defensive). Use non-aggressive language, particularly with people who are not familiar with these skills. Instead of "What do you mean?" or "What’s your proof?" say, "Can you help me understand your thinking here?" Draw out reasoning. Find out as much as you can about why they are saying what they ‘re saying. "What is the significance of that?" "How does this relate to your other concerns?" "Where does your reasoning go next?" Explain your reasons for inquiring, and how your inquiry relates to your own concerns, hopes, and needs. "I’m asking you about assumptions here because…"

52 Compare your assumptions to theirs.
Compare your assumptions to theirs. What to do What to say Test what they say by asking for broader contexts, or for examples. "Can you give an example…?" "How would your idea affect..?" "Is this similar to …?" Check your understanding of what they have said. "Am I correct that you’re saying?" Listen for the new understanding that may emerge. Don’t concentrate on preparing to destroy the other person’s argument or promote your own agenda.

53 Opening Lines When… you might say… Strong views are expressed with “I’d like to understand more. out any reasoning or What leads you to believe….?” illustrations… The discussion goes off on an “I’m unclear how that connects apparent tangent… to what we’ve been saying. Can you explain how you see it as relevant?” Two members pursue a topic at “I’d like to give my reaction to length while others observe… what you two have said so far, and then see what you and others think.”

54 Applying the Skills Ask students to compare and clarify assumptions about each other, the course, the instructor, with you. Sit in pairs and have one person state an assumption and the other person respond. The assumption does not have to be negative. The other party will refute or confirm the assumption. Examples: “I assume you like this class because you frequently asking questions.” “I get the idea from what you say about your last school that you are satisfied with this school. Is that right?

55 Apply Dialogue Skills in Learning Communities
Establish and support informal learning communities to promote: Student/faculty dialogue Faculty dialogue Faculty-administration dialogue "Once a group has achieved community, the single most common thing members express is: “I feel safe here.” M. Scott Peck, M.D.

56 Create and support Learning Communities*
A learning community is an alternative form of education directed by participants, not a designated instructor. It can occur in many forms such as online, or small groups meeting face-to-face. Generally, a learning community commits to regular meetings and format for discussion, dialogue and growth. Groups may consist of all students or a combination of students and faculty. Importantly, there is a common goal and collaboration. Learning communities are particularly effective for group learning projects. *Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems. Available online at:

57 Suggested activities to further promote a learner centered environment

58 Get and keep attention! Start or interject the class with fun facts, humor, or a brain twister. Example: What is peculiar about the number ? Hint: You need no mathematical skills to solve the problem. Each digit is used once. The sequence of the numbers is significant.

59 Silent Start Objective: Apply critical thinking skills and prepare for discussion. Materials: Paper, pen Start the class with a brief writing assignment by posting 2-3 questions. Give students 5 minutes to write responses. Group students in pairs or triads for discussion. Allow 6-8 minutes. Facilitate discussion. Compare and contrast responses. Summarize and bring to closure. Examples: What is feminism? Are you a feminist? Why/why not? Should grades be eliminated and replaced with a pass/fail system? Why/why not?

60 Partner Progress Objective: Compare information, share ideas; opportunity to assess.
Depending on the nature and time frame of the class, ask students to turn to one another (online - exchange s) and compare notes or exchange any questions or concerns about the class content. If the class involves skill application, i.e., draw, design, etc., have students assess each other’s work with predetermined criteria. Give them 3-5 minutes. After this activity ask what they learned about the content or another person’s perspective. Ask what questions they have as a result of the partner exchange.

61 Summary Swap Objective: Summarize a segment of content and identify key learning points. Materials: Index cards or student’s paper After a period of time, roughly 10 minutes, in class or lab, ask students to summarize the key learnings from that segment of the class. On an index card, or sheet of paper, they are to put their name at the top. Use only one side to record the summary. Take about two minutes for this. Ask everyone to stand up and exchange the card with someone. The person who received the card will read it over and add anything they think is important that the card “owner” may have left out. Exchange cards 2-3 times with different students. Direct everyone to return the card to the “owner.” Ask for a volunteer to read their summary and what was added to the card. The cards make a great tool for review.

62 Activate the concept Objective: To strengthen learning by acting out the concept
Physically acting out a concept may be a more effective and engaging for students than simply reading or hearing about the concept. The example below was used in a research methods class. It can be adapted to many different concepts and learning environments. Learning objective: Distinguish between independent and dependent variables. Identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. Have the entire class stand in a group. Pose the following research question: What is the correlation between sex of the driver and being stopped for speeding? Advise students to first identify the independent variable (sex of driver), the attributes of that variable (male/female), and the dependent variable (stopped for speeding). Next, tell the students that they need to actually show how we would research this by moving around the room. Ask, “What would you do first?” Here the students need to divide into the two attributes, male and female. State, “Now that you are in two groups, what is the question?” (Who has been stopped for speeding?) This activity can go on as you ask students to identify possible antecedent and intervening variables. 7) Ask if correlation implies causation.

63 Props Objective: Learn an abstract with a tangible Materials: Miscellaneous props
Roll dice or flip a coin to teach probability. Have students work in pairs or small groups with dice to experience this first-hand. Use candy to show measures of central tendency. Jelly beans or M&M’s work well with this activity. Give pairs or groups of students candy and “data.” They are to use the candy to depict a bar chart, histogram, polygon, etc. A human histogram or scatter gram can be created by asking students to position themselves in the room as if each person were data.

64 When we teach, we learn Objective: To reinforce learning by teaching to a peer
Advise students that they are to select one concept, skill, formula, etc., from what has been covered today, to teach to a classmate. Allow about 3-4 minutes for preparation. The teaching should only take 2-2.5 minutes each. Pair students for the “teach/learn” activity. They may select their own partner or you may ask them to pair with someone they don’t know, or haven’t paired with previously. Give then some directions to begin, i.e., the person whose first name begins first in the alphabet. Tell them they have 5 minutes total for both students to teach and ask questions. Advise them when half of the time has elapsed. Ask: What was difficult about this activity? What was easy or fun about this activity? How did the teaching reinforce the learning? Teaching is the highest form of understanding. Aristotle

65 References Buckingham, Marcus & Coffman, Curt, First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently, New York: Simon & Schuster, Doyle, W., & Rutherford, B “Classroom research on matching learning and teaching styles.” Theory Into Practice, 23, Felder, R.M. , Matters of Style. ASEE Prism, 6(4), 18-23). Felder, R.M., & Silverman, L.K Learning styles and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), Fleming, Neil. VARK, A guide to learning styles: Gardner, Howard, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books. Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing leaning by understanding teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh: Alliance Publishers.

66 References Grow, Gerald O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), Expanded version available online at: McKeachie, W. (1994) Teaching tips: A guidebook for the beginning college teacher (9th edition). Lexington, MA: Heath. McKeachie, W.J. (1995). Learning styles can become learning strategies. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, 4(6), 1-3. Oxford, R., Ehrman, M, and Lavine, R Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In S. Magnan, (Ed.), Challenges in the 1990's for College Foreign Language Programs. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. Wilson, Brent & Rider, Martin. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems. Available online at:

67 Visual Learners Prefer
Visual Learners Prefer Visual materials (e. g., pictures, charts) Description of images Color to highlight important points in the text To take notes or illustrate idea Study in a quiet place

68 Auditory Learners Prefer
Discussion To make class presentations A tape recorder during lectures instead of taking notes Read text aloud Analogies and story telling Mnemonics and musical jingles to aid memorization

69 Reading/Writing Learners Prefer
Detailed note taking Essay exams Printed materials (e. g., handouts, texts, lecture notes, lists) Articulation and full sentences Independent study

70 Kinesthetic Learners Prefer
Kinesthetic Learners Prefer Hands-on, moving around, touching objects Doodling Take frequent study breaks Inconsistent eye contact Chew gum/listen to music while studying

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