Presentation on theme: "Preview Section 1 Work and Power Section 2 What Is a Machine?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Preview Section 1 Work and Power Section 2 What Is a Machine? Work and MachinesPreviewSection 1 Work and PowerSection 2 What Is a Machine?Section 3 Types of MachinesConcept Mapping
2 Section 1 Work and PowerBellringerFirst, in your science journal, define what specific kind of work is being done in each activity below. Then, select the activities that require the least amount of work.carrying heavy books homereading a 300-page novelskiing for 1 hourlifting a 45 kg massholding a steel beam in place for 3 hoursjacking up a car
3 Objectives Determine when work is being done on an object. Section 1 Work and PowerObjectivesDetermine when work is being done on an object.Calculate the amount of work done on an object.Explain the difference between work and power.
4 Section 1 Work and PowerWhat Is Work?Work is the transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force.Transfer of Energy One way you can tell that work is being done is that energy is transferred.
5 Section 1 Work and PowerWhat Is Work?, continuedDifference Between Force and Work Applying a force doesn’t always result in work being done.Force and Motion in the Same Direction For work to be done on an object, the object must move in the same direction as the force.
7 Section 1 Work and PowerHow Much Work?Same Work, Different Force Work depends on distance as well as force.
8 How Much Work?, continued Section 1 Work and PowerHow Much Work?, continuedCalculating Work The amount of work (W) done in moving an object can be calculated by multiplying the force (F) applied to the object by the distance (d) through which the force is applied:W F dThe unit used to express work is the newton-meter (N m), which is more simply called the joule.
10 Power: How Fast Work Is Done Section 1 Work and PowerPower: How Fast Work Is DoneCalculating Power Power is the rate at which energy is transferred. To calculate power (P), you divide the amount of work done (W) by the time (t) it takes to do that work:W ÷ t = PThe unit used to express power is joules per second (J/s), also called the watt. One watt (W) is equal to 1 J/s.
12 Power: How Fast Work Is Done, continued Section 1 Work and PowerPower: How Fast Work Is Done, continuedIncreasing Power It may take you longer to sand a wooden shelf by hand than by using an electric sander, but the amount of energy needed is the same either way. Only the power output is lower when you sand the shelf by hand.
13 Section 2 What Is a Machine? BellringerWrite a one-paragraph answer in your science journal to the following question:Why do we use machines?
14 Objectives Explain how a machine makes work easier. Section 2 What Is a Machine?ObjectivesExplain how a machine makes work easier.Describe and give examples of the force-distance trade-off that occurs when a machine is used.Calculate mechanical advantage.Explain why machines are not 100% efficient.
15 Machines: Making Work Easier Section 2 What Is a Machine?Machines: Making Work EasierA machine is a device that makes work easier by changing the size or direction of a force.
16 Machines: Making Work Easier, continued Section 2 What Is a Machine?Machines: Making Work Easier, continuedWork In, Work Out The work that you do on a machine is called work input. The work done by the machine on an object is called work output.How Machines Help Machines allow force to be applied over a greater distance, which means that less force will be needed for the same amount of work.
17 Machines: Making Work Easier, continued Section 2 What Is a Machine?Machines: Making Work Easier, continuedSame Work, Different Force Machines make work easier by changing the size or direction of the input force.The Force-Distance Trade Off When a machine changes the size of the force, the distance through which the force is exerted must also change.
19 Section 2 What Is a Machine? Mechanical AdvantageWhat Is Mechanical Advantage? A machine’s mechanical advantage is the number of times the machine multiplies force.Calculating Mechanical Advantage You can find mechanical advantage by using the following equation:()mechanical advantageMA=output forceinput force
20 Mechanical Efficiency Section 2 What Is a Machine?Mechanical EfficiencyThe less work a machine has to do to overcome friction, the more efficient the machine is. Mechanical efficiency is a comparison of a machine’s work output with the work input.Calculating Efficiency A machine’s mechanical efficiency is calculated using the following equation:mechanical efficiency=work outputwork input100
21 Mechanical Efficiency, continued Section 2 What Is a Machine?Mechanical Efficiency, continuedPerfect Efficiency? An ideal machine would be a machine that had 100% mechanical efficiency.Ideal machines are impossible to build, because every machine has moving parts. Moving parts always use some of the work input to overcome friction.
22 Mechanical Efficiency Section 2 What Is a Machine?Mechanical EfficiencyClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
23 Section 3 Types of Machines BellringerWhat type of machine can be found on at least half the students in this room right now? What kinds of machines were common 50 years ago? 100 years ago? Are any of the same machines around today that were common in the 1800s? What has changed about those same machines today?Record your thoughts in your science journal.
24 Section 3 Types of Machines ObjectivesIdentify and give examples of the six types of simple machines.Analyze the mechanical advantage provided by each simple machine.Identify the simple machines that make up a compound machine.
25 Section 3 Types of Machines LeversA lever is a simple machine that has a bar that pivots at a fixed point, called a fulcrum.First-Class Levers With a first-class lever, the fulcrum is between the input force and the load.
26 Section 3 Types of Machines Levers, continuedSecond-Class Levers The load of a second-class lever is between the fulcrum and the input force.
27 Section 3 Types of Machines Levers, continuedThird-Class Levers The input force in a third-class lever is between the fulcrum and the load.
28 Section 3 Types of Machines PulleysA pulley is a simple machine that consists of a wheel over which a rope, chain, or wire passes.Fixed Pulleys A fixed pulley is attached to something that does not move.
29 Section 3 Types of Machines Pulleys, continuedMovable Pulleys Unlike fixed pulleys, movable pulleys are attached to the object being moved.Blocks and Tackles When a fixed pulley and a movable pulley are used together, the pulley system is called a block and tackle.
31 Section 3 Types of Machines Wheel and AxleWhat Is a Wheel and Axle? A wheel and axle is a simple machine consisting of two circular objects of different sizes.
32 Wheel and Axle, continued Section 3 Types of MachinesWheel and Axle, continuedMechanical Advantage of a Wheel and Axle The mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle can be found by dividing the radius (the distance from the center to the edge) of the wheel by the radius of the axle.
33 Section 3 Types of Machines Inclined PlanesAn inclined plane is a simple machine that is a straight, slanted surface.Mechanical Advantage of an Inclined Plane The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane can be calculated by dividing the length of the inclined plane by the height to which the load is lifted.
35 Inclined Planes, continued Section 3 Types of MachinesInclined Planes, continuedWedges A wedge is a pair of inclined planes that move.Mechanical Advantage of Wedges can be found by dividing the length of the wedge by its greatest thickness.
36 Inclined Planes, continued Section 3 Types of MachinesInclined Planes, continuedScrews A screw is an inclined plane that is wrapped in a spiral around a cylinder.Mechanical Advantage of Screws The longer the spiral on a screw is and the closer together the threads are, the greater the screw’s mechanical advantage is.
37 Compound Machines of Machines Section 3 Types of MachinesCompound Machines of MachinesWhat Are Compound Machines? Compound machines are machines that are made of two or more simple machines.Mechanical Efficiency of Compound Machines The mechanical efficiency of most compound machines is low, because compound machines have more moving parts than simple machines do. Thus, there is more friction to overcome.
38 Compound Machine of Machine Section 3 Types of MachinesCompound Machine of MachineClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
39 Work and MachinesConcept MappingUse the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.work input distanceoutput force input forcework mechanical efficiencylever mechanical advantage