3 DRR a moving agenda International Decade on Natural Disaster Reduction United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction(UNISDR)2000Global Platform for DRR20071994Yokohama Strategy – World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction2005World Conferenceon Disaster Risk Reduction - KobeIDNDR – On December 11, 1987 UN General Assembly declared the 1990s as the International Decade on Natural Disaster Reduction. The reason was promotion of internationally coordinated efforts to reduce material losses and social and economic disruption caused by natural disaster especially in developing countries. Set of expectations were developed for the national governments.Yokohama Strategy – in the middle of the IDNDR there was certain dissatisfaction of the top-down policies towards natural disaster reduction. There fore on the conference in Yokohama two strong messages were sent that influenced future developments in this area. The first one was that the states should show clear understanding of the cultural and organizational characteristics of each society as well as of its behavior and interactions with the physical and natural environment. The second was toward bigger mobilization of the NGO sector and the local communities.HFA 2005 – 2015 – Five priority actions: Make DRR national priority; Identification, assessment and monitoring of disaster risks; Using knowledge and inovation for DRR; Reducing underlying factors and Strengthening preparedness capacities.
4 Hyogo Framework for Action 2005 - 2015 Make DRR national priority;Identification, assessment and monitoring of disaster risks;Using knowledge and innovation for DRR;Reducing underlying factors andStrengthening preparedness capacities.
6 DRR definition“The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.”Source UNISDR,2009
7 Disasters as social constructions Pakistan floods, 2010Haiti earthquake, 2010Hurricane Katrina, 2005Great East Japan earthquake,2010
9 Disaster Management (DM) Disaster Risk Reduction Conceptual framework for DMDisaster Management (DM)Disaster Risk ReductionRespRec.Risk AssessmentPreventionMitigationPreparednessRiskAnalysisRiskEval.Understanding disasters as social constructions is actually rejection of earlier modernist understandings of the catastrophic event as an ‘accident’ originating outside society, in favour of seeing such events as directly linked to how the human and natural worlds work and interact. This move from ‘outside’ to ‘inside’ society denotes important changes in the nature of disaster management. Rather than saving lives or protecting populations, today’s neoliberal turn instead privileges the support of livelihoods and the protection of critical infrastructure. Rather than separating people from danger, or placing barriers between them and potential harm, there is a new willingness to encourage the positive embrace of risk and uncertainty as life affirming opportunities and essential conditions for the strengthening resilience.Sustainable development
15 Challenges Urbanization , More than half of the world’s current population lives in citiesBy the year 2015 there are expected to be 60 megacities in the world, each with a population of 10 million or more peopleHigh concentrations of resources and people within cities also mean that the economic social, and environmental costs of extreme events are high in urban areas,
16 Challenges Climate change increase the frequency and magnitude of many types of extreme events, including floods, droughts, tropical cyclones and wildfireschange the nature of many types of hazardsmay lead to relocation within and between countries
17 Challenges Digital era Number of cell phone users is bigger than the total world populationUse of social media in disaster management
18 “The difficulty in securing and maintaining resources for disaster risk reduction is that if it is successful, nothing happens and nobody knows about it” John Tomblin,1988