Presentation on theme: "G. HERBST 2012 Grammar Crammers 51-60. States Standing alone spell out the names of all 50 U.S. states Abbreviating Use abbreviations when states."— Presentation transcript:
States Standing alone spell out the names of all 50 U.S. states Abbreviating Use abbreviations when states are listed with the name of a city, town, village or military base Ex: Beverly Hills, Calif.; Albany, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich. If unsure of abbreviations, reference AP Style Guide NEVER ABBREVIATE in text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, Utah Punctuation Place one comma between the city and state, and another comma after the state name unless ending a sentence Ex: He was traveling from Nashville, Tenn., to Austin, Texas. In headlines Use abbreviations No periods necessary for those abbreviated with two capital letters Ex: NY, NJ, NC, SD, RI
Loose, Lose Loose Adjective Ex: Those pants are too loose on you. Lose Verb Ex: It would really be a shame for her to lose her job.
Choose, Chose Choose Verb Present tense To select from a variety of options Ex: You need to choose which idea you like best. Chose Past tense of choose Ex: Yesterday, you chose which idea you liked best.
Prefixes Generally do not hyphenate when using a prefix with a word starting with a consonant Three constant rules: Except for cooperate and coordinate, use a hyphen if the prefix ends in a vowel and the word that follows begins with the same vowel Use a hyphen if the word that follows is capitalized Use a hyphen to join doubled prefixes: sub-subparagraph
Bi-, Semi- Bi- In general, no hyphen Examples: bifocal, bilateral, bimonthly, bipartisan, bilingual Semi- In general, no hyphen Examples: semifinal, semi-invalid, semiofficial, semitropical
Lightening, Lightning Lightening Verb Ex: I am lightening the load of your backpack. Lightning Noun Electrical discharge Ex: There was lightning and thunder.
Seasons Lowercase spring, summer, fall, winter and derivatives such as springtime UNLESS part of a formal name: EX: Dartmouth Winter Carnival, Summer Olympics, Winter Olympics
Envelop, Envelope Envelop Verb Other forms: enveloping, enveloped Ex: She couldn’t wait to envelop her arms around her puppy. Envelope Noun Ex: Make sure to properly address your envelope before mailing it.
Media, Medium Media In the sense of mass communication, such as magazines, newspapers, the news services, radio, television and on-line, the word is plural Ex: The news media are resisting attempts to limit their freedom. Medium In the sense of art, artists often specialize in a specific medium such as painting, drawing, photography. Ex: Her chosen medium was charcoal.
Percents When writing a percentage, always use the number and spell out the word percent Ex: A study found that 22 percent of kittens enjoy playing with string. HOWEVER, spell out the number when it begins a sentence Fifty percent of kittens enjoy watching birds.