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Energy: Forms and Changes. Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy: Forms and Changes. Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy: Forms and Changes

2 Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it as wind.

3  You use energy when you: hit a softball. lift your book bag. compress a spring.

4 Nature of Energy Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

5 Nature of Energy  Energy is involved when: a bird flies. a bomb explodes. rain falls from the sky. electricity flows in a wire.

6 Nature of Energy  What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? Energy can be defined as the ability to do work. If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy.

7 Nature of Energy  Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J).  In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them.

8 Forms of Energy  The seven main forms of energy are: Thermal (heat) Chemical Electrical Nuclear Mechanical Radiant (light) Acoustic (sound)

9 Thermal Energy  The internal motion of the atoms is called thermal energy, because moving particles produce heat.  Thermal energy can be produced by friction.  Thermal energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

10 Thermal Energy  a form of kinetic energy due to the random motion of the particles in an object; the faster the particles move, the greater the thermal energy.  also depends on the number of particles (for example, even though steam particles from a hot bath move faster than the liquid water particles in the bath, the liquid particles have more thermal energy because there are more of them than steam particles)

11 Chemical Energy  Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together.  when bonds are broken, energy is released.  energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged to form a new compound  chemical energy is a form of potential energy because it depends on the positions and arrangement of atoms in a compound

12 Chemical Energy  Fuel, food, and batteries are forms of stored chemical energy.

13 Electrical Energy  Electrical energy is the energy generated by moving electrons.  Power lines carry electrical energy into your home in the form of electricity.

14 Radiant Energy  a form of kinetic energy given off by all warm or hot bodies (e.g. the sun)  vibrations can travel through space or matter  also known as electromagnetic energy, which includes visible and invisible light energy

15 Radiant Energy  Light is a form of radiant energy.  Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of radiant energy.  Radiant Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

16 Nuclear Energy  The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

17 Nuclear Energy  a form of potential energy that comes from changes in the nucleus of an atom  if two or more small nuclei join together (fusion) or if the nucleus of a large atom breaks apart (fission), a large amount of energy is released.

18 Nuclear Energy The sun’s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.

19 Nuclear Energy  Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. The Perry Nuclear Power Plant and Davis- Bessie Nuclear Power Plant are located along Lake Erie in Northern Ohio

20 Mechanical Energy  When work is done to an object, it acquires energy.  The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

21 Mechanical Energy  the total amount of stored energy and energy of motion an object has  mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy

22 Mechanical Energy  When you kick a football, you give mechanical energy to the football to make it move.

23 Mechanical Energy When you throw a bowling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).

24 Acoustic Energy  energy of sound resulting from the vibration of an object  Most commonly referred to as sound energy

25 Acoustic Energy  Also include ultrasonic sound waves that have frequencies above the upper limit of the normal range of human hearing.  this is a form of kinetic energy

26 Energy Conversion  Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions.

27 Energy conversions  All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. Green plants convert the sun’s energy (radiant) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

28 Other energy conversions In an electric motor, electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy. In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator.

29 Energy Conversions  In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into thermal energy. The thermal energy is then changed into mechanical energy.

30 Chemical  Thermal  Mechanical

31 States of Energy  The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy.  All forms of energy can be in either of two states: Potential Kinetic

32 States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy  Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion.  Potential Energy is stored energy.

33 Kinetic Energy  The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.  The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has.  The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has.  Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

34 Potential Energy  Potential Energy is stored energy. Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. Or stored because of the work done on it:  Stretching a rubber band.  Winding a watch.  Pulling back on a bow’s arrow.  Lifting a brick high in the air.

35 Potential Energy  Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

36 Gravitational Potential Energy  Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy.

37 Gravitational Potential Energy  A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

38 Gravitational Potential Energy  If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board.

39 Gravitational Potential Energy  “The bigger they are the harder they fall” is not just a saying. It’s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E.  The formula to find G.P.E. is G.P.E. = Weight X Height.

40 Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.

41 Kinetic vs. Potential Energy At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.

42 Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions  As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

43 Ball slows down Ball speeds up

44 The Law of Conservation of Energy  Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means. It can only be converted from one form to another. If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries.

45 Law of Conservation of Energy  In 1905, Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other.  He showed that if matter is destroyed, energy is created, and if energy is destroyed mass is created. 2  E = MC

46 Vocabulary Words energy mechanical energy thermal energy chemical energy electrical energy radiant energy nuclear energy acoustic energy kinetic energy potential energy gravitational potential energy energy conversion Law of Conservation of Energy

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