2 What is a Monopoly?A market dominated by a single seller
3 What is a Monopoly?A monopoly forms when barriers prevent firms from entering a market that has a single supplier.
4 What is a Monopoly?A firm has a monopoly when it controls an entire market. Because a monopolist controls the price of its product, a monopoly produces less and charges higher prices than would a perfectly competitive market.
5 Problems with monopolies Charge higher pricesLess supply than demandedOnly one seller
6 Different types of Monopolies Economies of ScaleNatural MonopoliesGovernment Monopolies
7 Economies of ScaleIf a firm’s start up costs are high, and it’s average costs fall for each additional unit it produces, we say it enjoys what economists call: economies of scale.As production increases, the firm becomes more efficient.In a market with economies of scale, bigger is better – such a market can easily become a natural monopoly.
8 Natural MonopoliesA natural monopoly is a market that runs most efficiently when one large firm provides all of the output.If a second firm enters the market, competition will drive down the market price charged to customers and decrease the quantity each firm can sell.The government usually steps in and allows this so that resources are not wasted. In return, the government usually sets prices.
9 Natural MonopoliesNew technologies can sometimes destroy natural monopolies.Example: Phone industry. Used to be a natural monopoly – one phone company usually monopolized a region. They owned the phone poles, lines, hardware, etc.With the advent of wireless and cable phone services, the natural monopoly disappeared.
10 Government Monopolies A government monopoly is a monopoly created by the government.Types:PatentFranchiseLicense
11 PatentsA patent – gives a company exclusive rights to sell a new good or service for a specific period of time.Encourages research and development of new products that benefit society.
12 FranchisesA franchise – is a contract issued by a local authority that gives a firm a single firm the right to sell its goods within an exclusive market.Examples?: Single companies get exclusive rights to sell food and goods within national parks.Soda machines in schoolsUsed to keep small markets under control.
13 LicensesA license – the government grants firms the right to operate a business.Examples: radio frequencies (FCC) and land (some cities license a single firm to manage their public parking lots).In other cases, the government allows companies in an industry to restrict the number of firms in an industry.Examples: Major professional sports. MLB, NFL, NHL, NBAThey’re allowed to restrict markets and locations of teamsExempt from anti-trust laws.
14 The Monopolist’s Dilemma Even a monopolist faces a limited choice: it can choose either output or price, but not both.The monopolist looks at the big picture and tries to maximize profits. This means the monopolist will produce fewer goods at a higher price.The law of demand means that when the monopolist increases the price, it will sell less, and when it lowers the price, it will sell more.
15 So where does the monopoly set prices? Remember, to maximize profits, a seller should set its marginal revenue, or the amount it earns from the last unit sold, equal to its marginal cost, or the extra cost from producing that unit.In a perfectly competitive market, marginal revenue = priceWhen a firm has some control over price—and can cut price to sell more – marginal revenue is less than price.
16 Price DiscriminationMonopolists may divide consumers into to two or more groups and charge different prices to each group.Price discrimination is based on the idea that each customer has his or her own maximum price she will pay for a good or service.
17 Market PowerPrice discrimination is a is a feature of a monopoly but can be practiced by any company with Market power, which is the ability to control prices and total market output.Companies divide customers into large groups and design pricing policies for each group. Price discrimination means that some customers might be offered a discount while others are charged higher prices.
18 Price Discrimination Discounted air fares Manufacturers rebate offers Senior citizen, student, or military discountsChildren fly or stay freeFirms would rather have their business and earn lower profits than earn no profits at all so they offer discounts.
19 Limits of Price Discrimination For price discrimination to work, a market must meet three conditions:1. Firms must have some market power –some control over price (this is rare in highly competitive markets)2. Customers must be divided into distinct groupsbased on sensitivity of pricemonopolists must be able to guess the demand curves of different groups and which ones are more elastic than others3. Buyers must not be in a position in which they can easily resell the good or service