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Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing

2 Gilded Age in American History
Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner Record economic and population growth after the Civil War US economy grew at fastest rate in American history New inventions Titans of industry->aides America becoming an industrial center Required more workers-> turned to immigrant labor Ended with Panic of 1893 and ushering in of the Progressive Era

3 Why Come to America? Immigrants- somebody who leaves their home country to live in another country Key Idea: America could offer them something they could not have access to in their home country. **American Dream** Economic opportunities Job, food, modern technology, etc. Unrest in home country Violence, famine, religion etc. Family already in America “Birds of Passage” Low cost of coming to America -> steam ship

4 Immigration by Area: Europe
million Europeans Before 1890->West and Northern Europe After > Central and Eastern Europe What led to such an increase in number of immigrants coming from Europe?

5 Immigration by Area: Europe
Ellis Island An immigration station in New York Harbor Not every immigrant was admitted (disease, criminal records, money/job) 17 million immigrants passed through Closed in 1954, now a museum Clip on Ellis Island

6 Ellis Island circa 1900’s

7 Ellis Island Museum: Present Day

8 Immigration by Area: Asia
about 300,000 Chinese immigrated Gold and railroads By 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast (California mainly) Due to annexation of Hawaii which had many Japanese laborers b/c of Dole fruits.

9 Immigration by Area: Asia
Angel Island An immigration station in San Francisco Bay > 50,000 Chinese Treatment: harsh and often detained

10 Angel Island circa 1916


12 Interrogation:

13 Angel Island Quarantine Station
Angel Island Quarantine Station. In 1892, the Quarantine Station was opened at Ayala Cove (then known as Hospital Cove), where ships from foreign ports could be fumigated, and immigrants suspected of carrying diseases could be kept in isolation. The warship USS Omaha was borrowed form the Navy in 1893 and its boilers used to supply superheated steam for fumigation. The 40 buildings at the cove included a 400-bed detention barracks, a disinfecting plant, laboratories, and quarters for employees.

14 A Day in the Life of a New Immigrant:
Imagine you go to a foreign country and have to provide for the following on your own! Language barrier Living arrangements Jobs/money Food, clothing, basic items

15 Idea of Nativism Nativists- supported American born people, mainly against immigrants believed that immigrants brought European radicalism with them to America blamed the newcomers for instigating the labor unrest that characterized much of the period. Immigrants hold on to beliefs/customs. Against idea of melting pot Social Darwinism with races Eugenics: Europeans the greatest race



18 Nativist Groups: American Protective Association (APA)
1887: papal conspiracy against liberty Against Roman Catholics (mainly those coming from Eastern and Central Europe) Immigration Restriction League 1894: America should be populated with people of Germanic origins because of their energy and intelligence. Organized by Harvard graduates

19 APA Poster


21 Restrictions on Immigration:
Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 Resulted from many workers and labor unions in the west concerned about job competition Banned all Chinese immigrants except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials Lasted till 1943 Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907 Prior to agreement Japanese children were being forced to attend segregated school in San Francisco Limited emigration of Japanese unskilled workers to US in exchange for repeal of segregation in schools.

22 Political Cartoons of Discrimination
Thomas Nast German-American editorial cartoonist Drew Uncle Sam and Santa Claus Famous for commentary on Gilded Age

23 "The Chinese Question. " (February 18, 1871). Thomas Nast
"The Chinese Question." (February 18, 1871). Thomas Nast. (Columbia defends disconsolae John Chinaman from nativist Attacks)



26 Circa 1889


28 People Move to Major Cities:
Urbanization Growth of cities in Midwest and Northeast Why? 1)Farming more efficient (less jobs on farms) 2)African Americans move from South 3)Immigrants live in cities (cheapest & convenient) By x as many Irish in NYC than in Dublin, Ireland By 1910 immigrants were more than half of total population in 18 major US cities Ethnic communities develop in cities


30 Challenges of City Life: Disease and Fire
Housing issues Many middle class families left cities as a result of mass transit systems As a result, their old houses were often divided up for multiple families Tenements Airshafts filled with garbage Drinking water Development of piped water and filtered water slow to come in larger cities Unclean water: cholera and typhoid fever Typhoid fever spread through drinking water or eating food contaminated with feces of an infected person. Cholera is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Spread through contaminated drinking water of food. Can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration.

31 Challenges of City Life: Disease and Fire
Lack of Sanitation (spread disease) Sewage often in streets Smoke from factories unfiltered Garbage in streets Fires Spread Easily Buildings made of wood Lighting by candles and kerosene in homes Frequent occurrences in large cities (1870s-1880s) 1871: Great Chicago Fire Lack of fire departments till 1900 Chicago rebuilds buildings with steel instead of wood.



34 Living Conditions of Immigrants and Urban Poor
Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890 Riis's reform argument targeted six major areas: men, women, children, workplaces, living and housing conditions, and improvements, real and imagined. Inspired investigative journalism Tenement Housing and slums Crime, disease, fires Clip on Jacob Riis For following photos… Write the one adjective that comes to mind to describe the condition of the people portrayed.

35 Photo by Jacob Riis portraying tenements

36 Entitled “Children Sleeping in Mulberry Street” 1890

37 Entitled “A Cave Dwellar, One of 4 Peddlars Who Slept” 1890


39 Homeless Children, 1890


41 Living Conditions for women

42 Tenement housing from the outside view

43 Society Assists Urban Poor and Immigrants:
Americanization Movement Attempt to give immigrants opportunities such as classes in English to help them assimilate. Social Gospel Movement Salvation through service to urban poor : Protestant ethics Later contributed to Progressive Movement in early 1900s

44 Jane Addams Inspired middle class women to get involved in community
Basis: Believe that poverty and the lack of opportunity breed the problems of the ghetto. Ignorance, disease, and crime are the result of economic desperation and not the result of some flaw in moral character. First woman to win Nobel Peace Prize

45 Jane Addams Hull House Chicago, Illinois Founded 1889

46 Jane Addams: Founder of Hull House
Settlement houses Community centers in urban, slum areas Toynbee Hall: London, England Purpose: social responsibility taken for urban poor Hull House: Chicago Paid for by her inheritance One of first American settlement houses Assisted many immigrants and brought attention to problems of urbanization Offered dance, school, day-care, music, health services, etc.

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