Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Immigration and Urbanization: America is growing
2 Gilded Age in American History Mark Twain and Charles Dudley WarnerRecord economic and population growth after the Civil WarUS economy grew at fastest rate in American historyNew inventionsTitans of industry->aides America becoming an industrial centerRequired more workers-> turned to immigrant laborEnded with Panic of 1893 and ushering in of the Progressive Era
3 Why Come to America?Immigrants- somebody who leaves their home country to live in another countryKey Idea: America could offer them somethingthey could not have access to in their home country.**American Dream**Economic opportunitiesJob, food, modern technology, etc.Unrest in home countryViolence, famine, religion etc.Family already in America“Birds of Passage”Low cost of coming to America -> steam ship
4 Immigration by Area: Europe million EuropeansBefore 1890->West and Northern EuropeAfter > Central and Eastern EuropeWhat led to such an increase in number of immigrants coming from Europe?
5 Immigration by Area: Europe Ellis IslandAn immigration station in New York HarborNot every immigrant was admitted (disease, criminal records, money/job)17 million immigrants passed throughClosed in 1954, now a museumClip on Ellis Island
8 Immigration by Area: Asia about 300,000 Chinese immigratedGold and railroadsBy 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast (California mainly)Due to annexation of Hawaii which had many Japanese laborers b/c of Dole fruits.
9 Immigration by Area: Asia Angel IslandAn immigration station in San Francisco Bay> 50,000 ChineseTreatment: harsh and often detained
13 Angel Island Quarantine Station Angel Island Quarantine Station. In 1892, the Quarantine Station was opened at Ayala Cove (then known as Hospital Cove), where ships from foreign ports could be fumigated, and immigrants suspected of carrying diseases could be kept in isolation. The warship USS Omaha was borrowed form the Navy in 1893 and its boilers used to supply superheated steam for fumigation. The 40 buildings at the cove included a 400-bed detention barracks, a disinfecting plant, laboratories, and quarters for employees.
14 A Day in the Life of a New Immigrant: Imagine you go to a foreign country and have to provide for the following on your own!Language barrierLiving arrangementsJobs/moneyFood, clothing, basic items
15 Idea of NativismNativists- supported American born people, mainly against immigrantsbelieved that immigrants brought European radicalism with them to Americablamed the newcomers for instigating the labor unrest that characterized much of the period.Immigrants hold on to beliefs/customs. Against idea of melting potSocial Darwinism with racesEugenics: Europeans the greatest race
18 Nativist Groups: American Protective Association (APA) 1887: papal conspiracy against libertyAgainst Roman Catholics (mainly those coming from Eastern and Central Europe)Immigration Restriction League1894: America should be populated with people of Germanic origins because of their energy and intelligence.Organized by Harvard graduates
21 Restrictions on Immigration: Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882Resulted from many workers and labor unions in the west concerned about job competitionBanned all Chinese immigrants except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officialsLasted till 1943Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907Prior to agreement Japanese children were being forced to attend segregated school in San FranciscoLimited emigration of Japanese unskilled workers to US in exchange for repeal of segregation in schools.
22 Political Cartoons of Discrimination Thomas NastGerman-American editorial cartoonistDrew Uncle Sam and Santa ClausFamous for commentary on Gilded Age
23 "The Chinese Question. " (February 18, 1871). Thomas Nast "The Chinese Question." (February 18, 1871). Thomas Nast. (Columbia defends disconsolae John Chinaman from nativist Attacks)
28 People Move to Major Cities: UrbanizationGrowth of cities in Midwest and NortheastWhy?1)Farming more efficient (less jobs on farms)2)African Americans move from South3)Immigrants live in cities (cheapest & convenient)By x as many Irish in NYC than in Dublin, IrelandBy 1910 immigrants were more than half of total population in 18 major US citiesEthnic communities develop in cities
30 Challenges of City Life: Disease and Fire Housing issuesMany middle class families left cities as a result of mass transit systemsAs a result, their old houses were often divided up for multiple familiesTenementsAirshafts filled with garbageDrinking waterDevelopment of piped water and filtered water slow to come in larger citiesUnclean water: cholera and typhoid feverTyphoid fever spread through drinking water or eating food contaminated with feces of an infected person. Cholera is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Spread through contaminated drinking water of food. Can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration.
31 Challenges of City Life: Disease and Fire Lack of Sanitation (spread disease)Sewage often in streetsSmoke from factories unfilteredGarbage in streetsFires Spread EasilyBuildings made of woodLighting by candles and kerosene in homesFrequent occurrences in large cities (1870s-1880s)1871: Great Chicago FireLack of fire departments till 1900Chicago rebuilds buildings with steel instead of wood.
34 Living Conditions of Immigrants and Urban Poor Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890Riis's reform argument targeted six major areas: men, women, children, workplaces, living and housing conditions, and improvements, real and imagined.Inspired investigative journalismTenement Housing and slumsCrime, disease, firesClip on Jacob RiisFor following photos…Write the one adjective that comes to mind to describe the condition of the people portrayed.
43 Society Assists Urban Poor and Immigrants: Americanization MovementAttempt to give immigrants opportunities such as classes in English to help them assimilate.Social Gospel MovementSalvation through service to urban poor : Protestant ethicsLater contributed to Progressive Movement in early 1900s
44 Jane Addams Inspired middle class women to get involved in community Basis: Believe that poverty and the lack of opportunity breed the problems of the ghetto. Ignorance, disease, and crime are the result of economic desperation and not the result of some flaw in moral character.First woman to win Nobel Peace Prize
45 Jane AddamsHull House Chicago, IllinoisFounded 1889
46 Jane Addams: Founder of Hull House Settlement housesCommunity centers in urban, slum areasToynbee Hall: London, EnglandPurpose: social responsibility taken for urban poorHull House: ChicagoPaid for by her inheritanceOne of first American settlement housesAssisted many immigrants and brought attention to problems of urbanizationOffered dance, school, day-care, music, health services, etc.