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Thermodynamics Chapter 18

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**Spontaneous Processes**

Processes that are spontaneous in one direction are nonspontaneous in the reverse direction.

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**Spontaneous Processes**

Processes that are spontaneous at one temperature may be nonspontaneous at other temperatures. Above 0C it is spontaneous for ice to melt. Below 0C the reverse process is spontaneous.

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Entropy Entropy can be thought of as a measure of the randomness of a system. It is related to the various modes of motion in molecules.

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**Second Law of Thermodynamics**

The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe increases for spontaneous processes, and the entropy of the universe does not change for reversible processes.

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**Second Law of Thermodynamics**

For reversible processes: Suniv = Ssystem + Ssurroundings = 0 For irreversible processes: Suniv = Ssystem + Ssurroundings > 0

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**Second Law of Thermodynamics**

These last truths mean that as a result of all spontaneous processes the entropy of the universe increases.

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**Entropy on the Molecular Scale**

Molecules exhibit several types of motion: Translational: Movement of the entire molecule from one place to another. Vibrational: Periodic motion of atoms within a molecule. Rotational: Rotation of the molecule on about an axis or rotation about bonds.

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**Entropy on the Molecular Scale**

Boltzmann envisioned the motions of a sample of molecules at a particular instant in time. This would be akin to taking a snapshot of all the molecules. He referred to this sampling as a microstate of the thermodynamic system.

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**Entropy on the Molecular Scale**

The change in entropy for a process, then, is S = k lnWfinal k lnWinitial lnWfinal lnWinitial S = k ln Entropy increases with the number of microstates in the system.

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**Entropy on the Molecular Scale**

The number of microstates and, therefore, the entropy tends to increase with increases in Temperature Volume The number of independently moving molecules

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**Entropy Changes In general, entropy increases when**

Gases are formed from liquids and solids. Liquids or solutions are formed from solids. The number of gas molecules increases. The number of moles increases.

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**Third Law of Thermodynamics**

The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is 0.

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Standard Entropies It is possible to determine the absolute entropy of a substance, something that cannot be done for enthalpy or energy. These are molar entropy values of substances in their standard states Unlike enthalpies of formation, standard molar entropies of elements at the reference temperature of 298 K are NOT zero Standard entropies tend to increase with Phase changes from solid to liquid or gas Increasing molar mass Increase in the number of atoms in the formula of a substance

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**Entropy as a function of temperature**

Molar entropies increase on going from solid to liquid to gas, with sharp increases at the temperature of the phase boundary.

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Standard Entropies Larger and more complex molecules have greater entropies.

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**Entropy Changes for a System**

Remember that spontaneity is determined by the change in entropy for the universe, which depends on changes to the system and the surroundings. Entropy changes for a reaction can be estimated in a manner analogous to that by which H is estimated: S° = nS°(products) - mS°(reactants) where n and m are the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

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**Entropy Changes in Surroundings**

Remember that spontaneity is determined by the change in entropy for the universe, which depends on changes to the system and the surroundings. Heat that flows into or out of the system changes the entropy of the surroundings. For an isothermal process: Ssurr = qsys T At constant pressure, qsys is simply H for the system.

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**Entropy Change in the Universe**

It is possible to express the entropy change in the universe in terms of entropy change for a system and its surroundings. The universe is composed of the system and the surroundings. Therefore, Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurroundings For spontaneous processes Suniverse > 0

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**Entropy Change in the Universe**

This becomes: Suniverse = Ssystem + Multiplying both sides by T, TSuniverse = Hsystem TSsystem Hsystem T

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Gibbs Free Energy TDSuniverse is defined as the Gibbs free energy, G. When Suniverse is positive, G is negative. Therefore, when G is negative, a process is spontaneous.

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Gibbs Free Energy If DG is negative, the forward reaction is spontaneous. If DG is 0, the system is at equilibrium. If G is positive, the reaction is spontaneous in the reverse direction.

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**Standard Free Energy Changes**

Analogous to standard enthalpies of formation are standard free energies of formation, G. f DG = SnDG(products) SmG(reactants) f where n and m are the stoichiometric coefficients. The temperature chosen for tabulated values of G is usually 25oC. f

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**Free Energy Changes At temperatures other than 25°C, DG° = DH TS**

How does G change with temperature? Temperature-dependence of spontaneity depends on the sign of the entropy term!

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**Free Energy and Temperature**

There are two parts to the free energy equation: H— the enthalpy term TS — the entropy term The temperature dependence of free energy, then comes from the entropy term.

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**Free Energy and Temperature**

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**Free Energy and Equilibrium**

Under any conditions, standard or nonstandard, the free energy change can be found this way: G = G + RT lnQ (Under standard conditions, all concentrations are 1 M, so Q = 1 and lnQ = 0; the last term drops out.)

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**Free Energy and Equilibrium**

At equilibrium, Q = K, and G = 0. The equation becomes 0 = G + RT lnK Rearranging, this becomes G = RT lnK or, K = eG/RT

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DG0 = - RT lnK 18.6

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